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| || BROADWAY CIVIL WAR MONUMENT |
318 Elm Street at Broadway
New Haven, CT
Dedicated: June 16, 1905
Type: Granite pedestal with two figures and bronze plaques, cylindrical granite shaft, and crowning bronze sphere and eagle
Designer, fabricator, supplier: Smith Granite Company
Height: Approximately 31'
BROADWAY CIVIL WAR MONUMENT, New Haven, is significant historically because it is the third Civil War monument to be raised in New Haven, the first being SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' MONUMENT, East Rock Park, 1887, while the second was SOLDIERS MONUMENT, 9TH REGT. CONN. VOL., Sixth Street, 1903. Like Sixth Street, BROADWAY's purpose was to honor a particular group of men, rather than all who served, as did East Rock. First Connecticut Light Battery, and Sixth, Seventh, and Tenth Connecticut Volunteers are honored at Broadway.
The dedication ceremony was a typical Civil War monument event, a major civic happening. Buildings were draped with flags and bunting; crowds were dense. The number of people in attendance was estimated at 10,000 (Program, page 38). Among the orators were John P. Studley, mayor of New Haven, and Henry Wade Rogers, dean of the Yale University Law School. The mayor saluted the "man behind the gun, whose intelligent obedience, calm courage, alertness, and faith in the republic..." contributed to victory (Program, page 38).
Dean Rogers took a more scholarly approach, reviewing Connecticut's position in the history of slavery in America. He noted that Connecticut voted with the Southern states in the Constitutional Convention for denial to Congress of the right to prohibit importation of slaves prior to 1808. In continuation of the state's pro-slavery stance, the Connecticut Supreme Court decided a case in 1831 in which it said that a Negro was a chattel (Program, page 41). He concluded his remarks with a stirring summation that the monument "tells what the Lord God omnipotent wrought, through the nation's heroes, for the salvation of our land" (Program, page 45). Such emphasis on duty, obedience, glory, and being on the side of the Lord was not uncommon at Civil War monument dedications.
BROADWAY is also significant because of the thorough documentation of the State of Connecticut's financial participation. While the state is known to have helped with several other Civil War monuments, including 21ST REGT. CONN. VOL., New London, the record of several actions by the General Assembly sets BROADWAY apart. By special acts, the legislature provided $4,000 for Smith Granite Company, possibly $3,000 for plaques, $3,000 for erection, and $3,500 for the governor's party to attend the dedication. This last expense may have included the cost of transporting troops from around the state to participate in the parade. The City of New Haven also provided funds, as did local citizens, who, in response to a last-minute emergency appeal, raised $500.
BROADWAY CIVIL WAR MONUMENT, New haven, is significant artistically because it is a variation on the conventional design of figures at the base of a tall shaft surmounted by a figure. Here the crowning feature is an eagle, not often seen in Connecticut Civil War monuments.
The monument was designed, produced, and supplied by Smith Granite Company of Westerly, Rhode Island. It bears strong resemblance to Smith's SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, New London. Both use the device of extending the base left and right to support two figures. The figures in the two monuments are quite similar. Both monuments have the motif of a band of stars.
Since Smith Granite Company was basically a stone quarry, the use of bronze sphere and eagle in BROADWAY indicates that the firm went outside its own organization for purchased components. The source of the bronze pieces is not known.
BROADWAY CIVIL WAR MONUMENT, New Haven, is sited in a small triangular park at the intersection of Broadway and Elm Street, facing southeast, close to Christ Church Episcopal. The monument was moved 30 feet in 1928 at the time of a change in the street pattern. It is tightly surrounded by an iron picket fence, which, as seen in a 1906 postcard, is original. The postcard view, free of nearby trees, shows the monument to better advantage than the accompanying photograph, in which it is partially obscured by a cherry tree whose foliage is in contact with the stone. After the photograph was taken the site was cleared of encroaching trees, returning the park approximately to its earlier appearance with the monument again the clearly dominating feature.
Dedicated to four Connecticut regiments which served in the Civil War, BROADWAY CIVIL WAR MONUMENT consists of an octagonal base, a cylindrical pedestal flanked by two figures, and a cylindrical shaft with crowning bronze sphere and eagle. The material is all granite except for the sphere and eagle. The base of three risers supports the plinth on which the bronze plaques are mounted. The pedestal is paneled, with lettering on the southeast side. There is a band of stars at the top of the pedestal under a ribbed pulvinated cornice.
The octagonal base is extended to the sides, northeast and southwest, to support the life-sized figures. The northeast figure is a conventional soldier standing with his right foot forward and with the butt of the musket placed to the left of and at right angles to the left foot. The soldier is wearing trousers and a jacket, which is buttoned at the neck. He is in the act of taking a cartridge from his cartridge box to insert into his musket. His right hand grasps the musket barrel. A bayonet is fastened at the right hip, with a canteen behind it. The right arm is bent at the elbow, allowing the right hand to open the cartridge box at his right hip. He wears a moustache and a soft cap with visor.
The southwest figure is an artilleryman standing with his right foot forward. There is an object on the ground in front of his left foot. He is dressed in trousers and a shirt open at the collar. The right arm is bent to permit his right hand to be held at the brow, to observe the effects of the last shot. His left hand grasps the top of his rammer, now broken off at hip height; it formerly extended to the ground, where a four-inch piece remains. The artilleryman is clean-shaven and wears a soft cap with visor.
Most of the monument's stone is smooth. The panels of the pedestal are polished, while the surface of the figures has a light texture.
The shaft is broken visually one-third of the way up by a pulvinated band of anthemia. Two-thirds of the way there is a band of stars. The top of the shaft tapers to accept the bronze sphere on which the eagle rests. The eagle's wings are widely spread; their undersides are covered with a black crust.
Southeast side of pedestal, in panel of cylindrical dado, caps incised in stone:ERECTED BY/THE JOINT CONTRIBUTIONS OF
THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT
THE VETERANS ASSOCIATIONS
OF THE/1ST CONN. LIGHT BATTERY AND
6TH, 7TH AND 10TH CONN. VOLS.
AS A SACRED AND PERPETUAL
MEMORIAL TO THE MEN WHO SUFFERED
AND DIED THAT THE REPUBLIC
MIGHT LIVE: 1861-1865
DEDICATED JUNE 16, 1905
Below, bronze plaque, on face of octagonal base, raised caps:l0TH CONN. VOLUNTEERS
IN GRATEFUL MEMORY OF THE SERVICES
AND SACRIFICES OF OUR HEROIC DEAD,
WHO OFFERED THEIR LIVES ON THE ALTAR
OF CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT AND HUMAN
LIBERTY, THIS TABLET IS LOVINGLY
INSCRIBED BY THEIR SURVIVING COMRADES
OF THE TENTH CONNECTICUT VOLUNTEERS.
TOTAL NUMBER ENROLLED 1879
TOTAL CASUALTIES 1011
NUMBER OF ENGAGEMENTS 51
TERM OF SERVICE, SEPTEMBER 30, 1861, TO SEPTEMBER 2, 1865
SAFE AND HAPPY THE REPUBLIC WHOSE
SONS GLADLY DIE IN HER DEFENSE
Northeast side of cylinder, bronze plaque, raised caps:SEVENTH CONN. VOLS.
TERRY'S DIVISION, TENTH CORPS.
TOOK PART IN CAPTURE OF FT. PULASKI,
CAPTURE OF FT. WAGNER,
DEMOLITION OF FT. SUMTER,
CAPTURE OF FT. FISHER
AND THIRTEEN OTHER ENGAGEMENTS.
DEPARTMENT OF THE SOUTH AND ARMY OF THE JAMES.
Northwest side of base, bronze plaque:6TH CONN. VOLUNTEERS
ORGANIZED SEPT. 1861. MUSTERED OUT AUG. 21st, 1865
TOTAL NUMBER OF MEN WHO SERVED IN THE REGT. 1608
PORT ROYAL, S.C., MORRIS ISLAND, S.C., SIEGE OF PETERSBURG
PORT PULASKI, GA., FORT WAGNER, S.C., DEEP BOTTOM, VA.
JAMES ISLAND, S.C., CHESTER STATION, VA., DEEP RUN, VA.
POCOTALIGO, S.C., DREWRYS BLUFF, VA., CHAPINS FARMS, VA.
FORT FISHER, N.C. WILMINGTON, N.C.
AND MORE THAN TWENTY OTHER MINOR ENGAGEMENTS
ARMY CORPS 19TH AND 24TH
DEPT. OF THE SOUTH. DEPT OF NORTH CAROLINA
ARMY OF THE JAMES ARMY OF THE POTOMAC
Southwest side of cylinder, bronze plaque, raised caps:FIRST CONNECTICUT LIGHT BATTERY
KNOWN AS ROCKWELL'S BATTERY
MUSTERED IN OCTOBER 26TH, 1861
MUSTERED OUT JUNE 11TH, 1865
PARTICIPATED IN THE SIEGE OF CHARLESTON
AND OTHER BATTLES IN SOUTH CAROLINA
FT. FINNEGAN, FLA. JAN. 1862 TO MAY 1864
AND ENGAGEMENTS OF RICHMOND AND
FROM MAY 1864 TO LEE'S SURRENDER IN 1865
THE TENTH AND TWENTY FIFTH ARMY CORPS
The Hartford Courant, June 16, 1905.
New Haven Register, June 3, 1928 and August 19, 1928.
Program of the Exercises at the Dedication of a Soldiers Monument Erected by the First Connecticut Light Battery, the Sixth, Seventh and Tenth Connecticut Volunteers, Broadway Park, New Haven, June 16, 1905, (Press of Price, Lee & Adkins Co., New Haven, Conn.).
Souvenir Soldiers Monument Day, New Haven, June 16, 1905.
- Special Acts of the General Assembly (See Special Acts of the Connecticut State Legislature, vol. XIII, p. 279.)
- 1899, June 20, Sp. Act 329. $4,000 for tablet or monument for lst Light Battery, 6th, 7th, and 10th Regiments.
- 1905, Sp. Act 160. $4,000 for memorial tablets or monuments. (Increased from $3,000 as provided by l903, Sp. Act 234 and l90l, Sp. Act 484.)
- 1905, Sp. Act 313. $3,500 for transportation of National Guard to dedication.
- Controller's Report, 1905.
- $4,000 to Smith Granite Company for 7th Regiment monument.
- $3,500 for expenses of Governor and party to attend dedication, per Sp. Act 313.
- Unidentified record
- $3,000 for memorials, $3,000 for erection.