African American Resources at the CHS


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or requests for reproductions should be addressed to research_center@chs.og

Printed Materials

Abbott, Jacob.
The Juno Stories. Volume First. Juno and Georgie. New York: Dodd & Mead, [n.d.].
Juvenile. Juno, an African-American nursery-maid has charge of eight-year-old Georgie, whom she teaches various moral lessons through adventures and stories.

Abdy, Edward Strutt.
Journal of a Residence and Tour in the United States of North America, from April, 1833, to October, 1834. London: J. Murray, 1835.
Extensive observations on African-Americans in various northern cities, especially New York; condition of slaves in the South; discussions of colonization experiment of Liberia and of Prudence Crandall.

Adams, James Truslow Adams.
New England in the Republic 1776-1850. Boston: Little, Brown, 1926.
Chapter XVII (pp. 401-423) "The Black Cloud" examines attitudes towards slavery and the abolitionist movement in New England between 1830 and 1850.

Adams, Nehemiah.
A South-Side View of Slavery. 4th ed. Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1860.
A northern clergyman's attempt to portray slavery in a favorable light. First published in 1854.

African Civilization Society.
Constitution of the African Civilization Society; Together With the Testimony of Forty Distinguished Citizens of New York and Brooklyn, to the Importance of the Objects Contemplated by its Friends. Also the Anniversary Address, Delivered by Rev. Joseph P. Thompson, D.D., at the Annual Meeting of the Society, May 19th, 1861. New Haven: Thomas J. Stafford, 1861.
Reprinted from the New Englander for Oct. 1861. Constitution and inaugural address of a society intended to foster the "civilization and Christianization of Africa ... the destruction of the African slave-trade ... and generally, the elevation of the condition of the colored population of our own country, and of other lands."

African Methodist Episcopal Church.
Minutes of the Annual Conferences of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in America. New York: Marks, 1843.
Organized in 1816, with Richard Allen as first Bishop, it comprised African- American Methodists who sought to escape discrimination within the parent body and achieve greater freedom in worship. Minutes issued annually.

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church.
Minutes of the Baltimore, Philadelphia, New-York, and New-England Annual Conferences. New York: T. Eato, P. Ross and J. C. Spence, for the Conferences, 1851.
Minutes issued annually.


The African Repository, and Colonial Journal, vol. 19, no. 3 (March 1843), Washington: Alexander and Barnard, 1843.
A publication of the American Colonization Society. Library has this issue only.

Albany, NY.
Early Records of the City and County of Albany and Colony of Rensselaerswyck. Rev. and ed. A. J. F. Van Laer. 3 vols. Albany: University of the State of New York, 1916-1919.
Footnote on page 29 refers to 17th century slave trade; record of slaves put up as collateral to creditors (p. 149).

Alcott, Louisa May.
Work: A Story of Experience. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1873.
Juvenile. Includes chapter in which the protagonist, Christie, takes work as a maid, and compares unfavorably with Hepsy Johnson, her African-American counterpart.

Alcorn, Robert Hayden.
The Biography of a Town: Suffield, Connecticut 1670-1970. [Suffield, CT: Three Hundredth Anniversary Committee of the Town of Suffield, (1970)].
Contains several references to African-Americans and slaves and includes a brief discussion of the Third Baptist Church Society (pp. 214-215).

Alexander, Martha.
Sabrina. New York: Dial Press, 1971.
Juvenile. A girl named Sabrina discovers that her name is beautiful—interacts with two African-American girls and African-American teacher in their nursery school setting.

Alexander, Martha.
The Story Grandmother Told. New York: Dial Press, 1969.
Juvenile. A little African-American girl and her grandmother share the responsibility for making up a story about a green cat balloon.

Allen, Francis Olcott, ed.
The History of Enfield, Connecticut ... Compiled from All the Public Records of the Town Known to Exist, Covering from the Beginning to 1850 ... Together with the Graveyard Inscriptions and Those of Hartford, Northampton and Springfield Records which Refer to the People of Enfield. Lancaster, PA: L. Wickersham, 1900.
Contains several entries for Enfield African-Americans. Most are listed under "negro" except for the members of the Freeman family.

Alnomuc: Or the Golden Rule, a Tale of the Sea.
Boston: James B. Dow, 1841.
Juvenile. Includes chapter in which the African-American steward illustrates the golden rule (pp. 29-40); includes two woodcuts.

American Association for State and Local History.
American Issues: Understanding Who We Are. Ed. William T. Alderson. Nashville: AASLH, 1976.
Includes discussions of civil rights issues, and other issues affecting African- Americans.

American Missionary Association.
The Nation Still in Danger; Or, Ten Years After the War. A Plea by the American Missionary Association, With Confirmatory Articles by Rev. T. D. Woolsey, D. D. LL.D., Hon. Frederick Douglass, Rev. Washington Gladden, Gov. D. H. Chamberlain, and Hon. J. P. Hawley. [s. l.]: American Missionary Association, 1875.
Stresses importance of religious training and secular education for the southern African-American. African-Americans have a hunger for, and aptitude for, education and training. If the South will not educate its African-Americans, missionaries from the North must do so.

The American Reader: Containing Extracts Suited to Excite a Love of Science and Literature, to Refine the Taste, and to Improve the Moral Character. Designed for the Use of Schools.
Brookfield: E. G. Merriam, 1828.
Juvenile. Includes poem entitled "Slavery" (pp. 91-93), by Wilcox, and two extracts from "A Parallel between Intemperance and the Slave Trade" by Humphrey (pp. 94-102).

American Revolution Bicentennial Commision of Connecticut.
The Underground Railroad in Connecticut. [S. l.: s. n., n. d.]
Brief descriptions of selected Underground Railroad sites in Connecticut, with photographs (some in color) of each.

American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses.
New York: The American Anti-Slavery Society, 1839.
Edited by Theodore Dwight Weld (1803-1895), this work is made up of the personal testimony of individuals, and of extracts from contemporary newspapers regarding the actual condition of African-American slaves in the South. Library also has the 1972 issue, edited by Richard O. Curry and Joanna Dunlap Cowden (Ithica, Ill.: Peacock, 1972), published under title: Slavery in America: Theodore Weld's American Slavery As It Is.

American Society of Genealogists, Washington.
Genealogical Research: Methods and Sources. Vol. 2. Ed. Kenn Stryker-Rodda. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: American Society of Genealogists, 1983.
Contains one brief mention of Lousianans of African descent.

American Statistical Association.
Collections. Vol. 1 (1847) -
Contains several references to statistics pertaining to slaves, i. e., duties, taxes, population. Also has article on slavery from a Concord, NH, newspaper laid in back (Congregational Journal, 11 June 1851).

American Tract Society. Hartford Branch.
Speeches of Chief Justice Williams, Judge Parsons, and Ex-Governor Ellsworth: delivered in the Center Church, Hartford, Conn. at the Anniversary of the Hartford Branch of the American Tract Society. January 9th, 1859. Hartford: Elihu Geer, 1859.
Responses, on behalf of the Tract Society, to those critical of the Society for its decision not to include antislavery tracts among its publications.

Anderson, Joseph, ed.
The Town and City of Waterbury, Connecticut, from the Aboriginal Period to the Year Eighteen Hundred and Ninety-Five. 3 vols. New Haven: Price & Lee, 1896.
Three volumes have scattered references, many in footnotes, to slaves and slavery in Waterbury.

"Anecdote of an American Negro Slave"
The American Baptist Magazine and Missionary Intelligencer vol. 1, New Ser. (1817):20.
Brief anecdote expressing inconsistency of a master's cruelty to his slave with the master's religious profession.

Anti-Nebraska Meetings.
Speeches and Other Proceedings at the Anti-Nebraska Meetings Held in New Haven, Connecticut, March 8th and 10th, 1854. New Haven: John H. Austin, 1854.
Denunciations of attempts to allow spread of slavery into Kansas-Nebraska territory, through adoption of Stephen Douglas' squatter sovereignty doctrine.

Anti-Slavery Society of Meriden, Connecticut.
An Apology for Abolitionists: Addressed by the Anti-Slavery Society of Meriden, Conn., to Their Fellow-citizens. Middletown: C. H. Pelton, 1837.
"Free people of color would rapidly improve in their moral and physical condition. A load of prejudice now crushes them in the dust. They cannot rise because they are deprived of the motives and facilities for self-improvement. We ... would correct all these evils, and cause men in this so call christian [sic] and democratic country, to be treated, according to the bible [sic], without distinction of color."

Appleton, Nathaniel.
Considerations on Slavery, In a Letter to a Friend. Boston: Edes & Gill, 1767.
Condemns both slavery and the slave-trade.

Appleton's Juvenile Annual: A Christmas and New-Year's Gift for Young People.
New York: D. Appleton, [c. 1868].
Juvenile. Includes "Origin of the White, the Red, and the Black man: A Seminole Tradition" (pp. 372-375). Shows African-Americans as inferior to the other two.

Archdeacon, Thomas J.
New York City, 1664-1710. Conquest and Change. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976.
Contains many references to slaves, population statistics, place in society, prosecutions, punishments, etc.

Atkinson, Joseph.
The History of Newark, New Jersey, Being a Narrative of Its Rise and Progress, from the Settlement in May, 1666, by Emigrants from Connecticut, to the Present Time. Newark: William B. Guild, 1878.
Tells of the Revolutionary service of Cudjo, slave of Benjamin Coe (p. 117) and briefly discusses slavery in New Jersey (pp. 169-172).

Atwater, Edward Elias, ed.
History of the City of New Haven to the Present Time. 2 vols. New York: W. W. Munsell, 1887.
Contains an account of the Amistad case (1:239-241) and a brief history of the Willkins Guard, an African-American National Guard unit (2:667-668).

Atwater, Henry.
Birmingham, Conn., Dec. 3d, 1859. Fellow Citizens. Birmingham: H. Atwater, 1859.
Broadside. Handbill calling on Citizens of Birmingham to disavow a demonstration of sympathy for John Brown held the previous day.


Aunt Fanny's Amusing and Instructive Stories about the Nations of Europe and America. Descriptive of the People, Manners, and Customs. Philadelphia: Henderson, 1857.
Juvenile. Includes short article on the "Haytians": "it is the natural indolence of the negro which makes him neglect labor and submit to wicked and bad government." (pp. 26-28).

Avery, David.
A Poem on the Origin and Suppression of the Late Rebellion. Willimantic: Weaver & Curtis, 1865.
A verse composition satirizing the philosophy of John C. Calhoun and the politics of Jefferson Davis.

Bacon, Edgar Mayhew.
Chronicales of Tarrytown and Sleepy Hollow. New York: G. P. Putnams's Sons, 1897.
Mentions the public slave whipper (p. 142).

Bacon, Georgeanna Muirson Woolsey, ed.
Letters of a Family During the War for Union, 1861-1865. [S.l.]: Printed for Private Distribution, [c. 1899].
Includes one letter describing condition of ex-slaves in Virginia (pp. 393-395).

Bacon, Leonard.
A Plea for Africa; Delivered in New-Haven, July 4th, 1825. New Haven: T. G. Woodward, 1825.
Commends work of the American Colonization Society: "Let Africa be civilized and every African throughout the world will be made a freeman, not by some sudden convulsion, but by the tendencies of nature and the arrangements of Providence, slowly yet surely."

Bacon, Leonard.
A Discourse Preached in the Center Church, in New Haven, August 27, 1828, at the Funeral of Jehudi Ashmun, Esq., Colonial Agent of the American Colony of Liberia. New Haven: Hezekiah Howe, 1828.
Describes some of the vicissitudes in founding colony of Liberia; brief sketch of the life of Ashmun in an appendix (pp. 34-36).

Bacon, Leonard Woolsey.
Anti-Slavery Before Garrison. Publications of the Connecticut Society of the Order of the Founders and Patriots of America No. 7. New Haven: Connecticut Society of the Order of the Founders and Patriots of America, 1903.
Attempts to make the case that antislavery before Garrison was "reasonable" and "nobly successful" and that Garrison harmed rather than helped the progress of emancipation.

Bacon, Theodore Davenport.
Leonard Bacon, a Statesman in the Church. Ed. Benjamin W. Bacon. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931.
A biography of the New Haven clergyman intimately involved in the antislavery agitation of the pre-Civil War era. It especially highlights the infighting between advocates of colonization, as Rev. Mr. Bacon was, and the abolitionists and maintains the general historic view that radicals caused the war and the failure of Reconstruction.

Bailey, Bess.
The Formative Years: Torrington 1737 to 1852. Torrington, CT: Torrington Historical Society, 1975.
Includes a brief biography of Lemuel Haynes, and comments on several African- American families in Torrington (pp, 68-74).

Bailey, Frederic W., ed.
Early Connecticut Marriages as Found on Ancient Church Records Prior to 1800. 7 vols. New Haven: Bureau of American Ancestry, 1896-1906.
Abstracts of Congregational Church records, which include records of marriages between African-Americans. (Race not necessarily indicated in index.)

Bailey, Sarah Loring.
Historical Sketches of Andover, (Comprising the Present Towns of North Andover and Andover), Massachusetts. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1880.
Town history. Brief commentaries, with transcriptions of pertinent documents, on slaves and servants in early Andover (pp. 39-44).

Baird, Charles Washington.
Chronicle of a Border Town. History of Rye, Westchester County, New York, 1660- 1870, Including Harrison and the White Plains, till 1788. New York: Anson D. F. Randolph, 1871.
Has a chapter on slavery in Rye (pp. 181-188).

Baldwin, Roger Sherman.
Argument of Roger S. Baldwin, of New Haven, Before the Supreme Court of the United States, in the Case of the United States, Appellants, vs. Cinque, and Others, Africans of the Amistad. New York: S. W. Benedict, 1841.
Constitutional defense of the Mendi Africans' right to freedom.

Baldwin, Simeon Eben.
The Captives of the Amistad. A paper read before the New Haven Colony Historical Society. From advance sheets of Vol. IV. of the Papers of the New Haven Colony Historical Society. [S. l.: s. n.], 1886.
Analysis of the Amistad Case by a noted Connecticut jurist and governor, and son of Roger Sherman Baldwin, counsel for the Mendi Africans.

Balzer, Richard.
Street Time. New York: Grossman, 1972.
A 1970's "portrait" of the Hill, an African-American ghetto community in New Haven.

Banks, A. Bleecker.
Albany Bi-Centennial: Historical Memoirs. Albany & New York: Banks, 1888.
Mentions the Burdette-Coutts Society and the "Exercises by Colored Societies" included in Albany's bicentennial celebration (pp. 263; 286-288).

Banks Charles Edward.
History of York, Maine, Successively Known as Bristol (1632), Agamenticust (1641), Gorgeana (1642), and York (1652). With Contributions on Topography and Land Titles by Angevine W. Gowen, C.E.; Sketches by the author. 2 vols. Boston: [Calkins Press], 1931-.
Title pages state: "In three volumes" _ vol. 3 never published. Contains a brief discussion of slaves and free African-Americans in the town of York (pp. 342-344). Includes some population statistics and several anecdotes about specific African-Americans.


Barbarism. Who Are Now the Savages? The Indians, the Georgians, or the Persecutors of the Noble Minded Miss Prudence Crandall, of Canterbury, and her Excellent Pupil, Miss Eliza Ann Hammond of Providence? [S.l.: s.n.], 1833.
Broadside. Defends Prudence Crandall's attempt to receive African-American pupil Miss Hammond as a pupil at her school; prints the sheriff's order relating to Miss Hammond's expulsion from the town and subsequent fine for non-compliance. Signed in print: Common Sense.

Barbauld, Anna Letitia Aikin.
Evenings at Home; Or, the Juvenile Budget Opened. Consisting of a Variety of Miscellaneous Pieces, For the Instruction and Amusement of Young Persons. Vol. 6. Third edition. [s. l.]: Johnson & Warner, 1813.
Juvenile. Includes dialogue entitled "Master and Slave" in which the slave makes the case that even humane treatment is not compensation for deprivation of liberty and self-determination (pp. 256-259).

Barbauld, Anna Letitia Aikin.
Evenings at Home; Or, the Juvenile Budget Opened: Consisting of a Variety of Miscellaneous Pieces, For the Instruction and Amusement of Young Persons. 2 vols. New edition. Philadelphia: James Kay, [ca. 1845].
Juvenile. Includes dialogue entitled "Master and Slave" (2:235-238).

Barber, John Warner, comp.
A History of the Amistad Captives: Being a Circumstantial Account of the Capture of the Spanish Schooner Amistad, by the Africans on Board; Their Voyage, and Capture Near Long Island, New York; with Biographical Sketches of Each of the Surviving Africans. Also, an Account of the Trials Had on their Case, Before the District and Circuit Courts of the United States, For the District of Connecticut. New Haven: E. L. & J. W. Barber, 1840.
Includes fold. woodcut showing the mutiny of the Mendi Africans, woodcut silhouette portraits, map of West Africa.

Richard G. Wheeler and George Hilton (Eds.) for the American Revolution Bicentennial Steering Committee for the Barkhamsted Historical Society, Inc. and the Town of Barkhamsted.
Barkhamsted Heritage: Culture and Industry in a Rural Connecticut Town. Barkhamsted: Barkhamsted Historical Society, 1975.
Has scattered references to slavery and related subjects.

Barnes, William.
American Slavery: A Sermon, Preached at Hampton, Conn., April 14th, 1843, the Day of the Annual Public Fast. Hartford: Elihu Geer, 1843.
Calls for immediate emancipation as best for both races; scorns the idea of colonization and advocates elevation of African-Americans to an equal place in society with whites.

Barondess, Benjamin.
Lincoln's Cooper Institute Speech. New York: The Civil War Round Table of New York, 1954.
The background and results of the delivery of Lincoln's famous Cooper Union Speech are related along with an analytical summary of the address and its historical background. The speech is seen as an attack on the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the Dred Scott case and an admonition to the North to stand firm in moral right against the spread of slavery.

Barrow, Frances Elizabeth.
Baby Nightcaps. New York: D. Appleton, 1860.
Juvenile. Includes story about African-American and white children playing together; another story illustrated with woodcut which includes African-American cook or maid.

Barrow, Frances Elizabeth.
The Little Nightcap Letters. New York: D. Appleton, 1861.
Juvenile. Includes story of a little white girl and her African-American nurse (pp. 94-108).

Barrow, Frances Elizabeth.
Nightcaps. New York: D. Appleton, 1864.
Juvenile. Includes story, "Massa Charles and His Family," set in Charleston, SC, depicting idealised relationship between whites and their "colored help" (i.e., slaves).

Barrows, John Stuart.
Fryeburg, Maine, an Historical Sketch. Fryeburg: Pequawket, 1938.
Contains an account of the African slave Limbo (pp. 241-243).

Bartlett, John Russell, comp.
The Literature of the Rebellion: A Catalogue of Books and Pamphlets Relating to the Civil War in the United States, and on Subjects Growing Out of That Event, Together With Works on American Slavery, and Essays From Reviews and Magazines on the Same Subjects. Boston: Draper & Halliday, 1866.
Includes chiefly items published between 1861-1865.

Bass, Henry Royce.
The History of Braintree, Vermont, Including a Memorial of Families That Have Resided in Town. Rutland, VT: Tuttle, 1883.
Town history. Has two very brief anecdotes dealing with African-Americans in Braintree (p. 43). The first is about a boy flogged for stealing pork form a neighbor's woodshed; the second, about Freeman, an early settler of Braintree.

Baxter, Elizabeth Sweetser, comp.
The Centennial History of Newington, Connecticut 1971. [Newington]: Lucy Robbins Welles Library & Centennial Celebration Commission, 1971.
Has a short section on slavery (pp. 114-118).

Beach, E. Merrill.
From Valley Forge to Freedom. A Story of a Black Patriot. Chester: Pequot Press, [1975].
Documented biography of Nero Hawley, a New England slave who served in the Revolutionary War and later owned property in Trumbull, CT.

Beach, E. Merrill.
Trumbull, Church and Town: A History of the Colonial Town of Trumbull and of its Church, Which Was the Church of Christ in Unity, the Church of Christ in North Stratford, and Is Now the Church of Christ in Trumbull, 1730-1955. 3rd ed. Trumbull, CT: Trumbull Historical Society, 1972.
Has scattered references to slaves, slavery, and African-American servants.

Beach, Joseph Perkins.
History of Cheshire, Connecticut, from 1694 to 1840, Including Prospect, Which, as Columbia Parish, Was a Part of Cheshire until 1829. Cheshire: Lady Fenwick Chapter, D. A. R., 1912
Short discussion of slavery in the Connecticut Colony, mentioning some of the slave owners in colonial Cheshire. Included is a transcript of the bill of sale of Prince to the Rev. John Foot, 1789 (pp. 158-159).

Beard, Timothy Field.
How to Find Your Family Roots. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.
Chapter 12 (pp. 125-134), "Black American Ancestry," discusses records for tracing slave and free African-Americans. The chapter also includes a brief listing of published sources and organizations. Chapter 27, "Black Ancestry," is a bibliography of sources for African-American ancestral research (pp. 274- 288).

Bedford, NH.
History of Bedford, New Hampshire, From 1737, Being Statistics Compiled on the Occasion of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Incorporation of the Town, May 15, 1900. Concord, N.H.: Town of Bedford, 1903.
Names many of the slaves and slave owners who inhabited Bedford in the 18th and 19th centuries (pp. 573-577). Mentions Jesse Hartwell, a freeman who was part black and part Indian, who owned property and his own church pew.

Bedini, Silvio A.
Ridgefield in Review. Ridgefield, CT: Ridgefield 250th Anniversary Committee, 1958.
Has a brief section on slavery (pp. 41-42), plus two references to the African- American population in Ridgefield (pp. 148, 150).

Beecher, Henry Ward.
Wendell Phillips: A Commemorative Discourse. New York: Fords, Howard, & Hulbert, 1884.
Highly appreciative biographical sermon, with extensive reflections on Phillips' role in the antislavery movement.

Belsham, William.
An Essay on the African Slave Trade. Philadelphia: D. Humphreys, 1790.
Spirited rebuttal of the argument that African-Americans are an inferior race, and therefore subject to enslavement.

Benezet, Anthony.
Serious Considerations on Several Important Subjects; viz., on War and Its Inconsistency With the Gospel; Observations on Slavery; And Remarks on the Nature and Bad Effects of Spiritous Liquors. Philadelphia: J. Crukshank, 1778.
Philadelphia Quaker attacks slavery as inconsistent "with every right of mankind, with every feeling of humanity, and every precept of Christianity."

Benjamin, Judah Philip.
Kansas Bill: Speech of Hon. J. P. Benjamin, of La., Delivered in Senate of United States on Thursday, March 11, 1858; Slavery Protected by the Common Law of the New World; Guaranteed by Constitution; Vindication of the Supreme Court of the U.S. Washington: G.S. Gideon, 1858.
Lengthy historical attempt to justify slavery by an appeal to English common law; used as an argument for the admission of Kansas as a slave state.

Best, Mary Agnes.
Town That Saved a State: Westerly. Westerly: Utter, 1943.
Chapter 12, "Time and Change", presents an interesting overview of the slavery issue and sketches of people who were instrumental in effecting change.

Bickford, Christopher P.
Farmington in Connecticut. Canaan, NH: Farmington Historical Society, 1982.
Has several references to African-Americans in Farmington and a thorough overview of the Amistad affair.

Bicknell, Thomas Williams.
A History of Barrington, Rhode Island. Providence: Snow & Farnham, 1898.
Chapter 25, "Domestic Slavery and Slaves," gives a brief accounting of the slaves of Barrington, listing owners and family members (pp. 402-410).

Bingham, Caleb.
The American Preceptor Improved, Being a New Selection of Lessons for Reading and Speaking. Designed for the Use of Schools. 68th (Eighth improved) ed. Boston: J. H. A. Frost, Lincoln and Edmands, Stimson and Clapp, Marsh, Capen and Lyon, 1833.
Juvenile. Includes "Speech of Mr. Pitt, in the British Parliament, on the Subject of the Slave Trade" (pp. 84-86); and a poem, "The Slaves: An Elegy" (pp. 86-88).

Bingham, Harold J.
History of Connecticut. 4 vols. New York: Lewis, 1962.
Discusses the abolitionist movement in Connecticut, noting such figures as the Beechers, Prudence Crandall, and the Amistad captives (pp. 520-527).

Bird, Isabella Lucy.
Englishwoman in America. Foreword and Notes by Andrew Hill Clark. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966.
Travel narrative. Contains several passages on slavery: "the curse and the shame ... the canker of the Union" (pp. 126-132, 410-412).

Birkbeck, Morris.
Notes on a Journey in America, From the Coast of Virginia to the Territory of Illinois. With Proposals for the Establishment of a Colony of English. 2nd ed. rev. Philadelphia: M. Carey & Son, 1819.
Travel narrative. Contains, in the first twenty-five pages, several references to African-Americans and slavery. The author's states his aversion to the institution (i. e. slavery) that restricted his search for a settlement location to the free states and territories (p. 5).

Bishop, William D.
Speech of the Hon. Wm. D. Bishop, of Connecticut, on the Admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution. [s. l.: s. n., n. d.]
Refutes the argument that slavery is sanctioned by the Bible; states that the Lecompton constitution has not the support of Kansas settlers themselves.

Black, Jeanette D.
The Blathwayt Atlas. 2 vols. Providence: Brown University Press, n. d.
A facsimile atlas of 48 maps drawn in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and used for colonial affairs by the British Lords of Trade with an accompanying volume of commentary. Of interest are maps of Africa and a map of the seacoasts from Landsend to Cape Bona Esperanza used in the African trade, which included slaves.


Black Names in America: Origins and Usage. Newbell Niles Puckett. Ed. Murray Heller. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1975.
Study of African-American names used in America from the 17th though 20th centuries. Includes historical commentary on the derivations of African-American names in America, lists of slave and free African-American names, incidence of use in Southern cities, and a dictionary of African origins.

Stetson, Erlene (Ed.)
Black Sister: Poetry by Black American Women, 1746-1980. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981.
This anthology of poetry by African-American women includes 18th and 19th century poets, including Lucy Terry and Phillis Wheatley. The preponderance of work, however, is 20th century; with critical introductions to each section.


Black Women of Connecticut: Achievements Against the Odds. Hartford: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1984.
Brief profiles of 81 women with roots in Connecticut who overcame double barriers of racism and sexism to make contributions in fields from art to law enforcement. While the book covers three centuries of endeavors, the emphasis is on the twentieth century.

Loewenberg, Bert James and Bogin, Ruth
Black Women in Nineteenth-Century American Life: Their Words, Their Thoughts, Their Feelings. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976.
An essay on women, African-Americans, and history that introduces a variety of life experiences of twenty-four articulate African-American women, all born before or during the Civil War. Selected for the recorded observations of events, either personal or on the wider fronts of social and political activity, each illuminates African-American women's history.

Blockson, Charles L.
A Commented Bibliography of One Hundred and One Influential Books By and About People of African Descent (1556-1982): A Collector's Choice. Amsterdam: A. Gerits & Sons, 1989.
Includes title-page facsimiles.

Boardman, James.
America, and the Americans. ... By a Citizen of the World. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, 1833.
Travel narrative. Contains passage critical of both slavery and the African Colonization Society, the latter for being used to remove only those few slaves that the planters found "convenient to emancipate" while the majority remained in bondage (pp. 244-249).

Bolles, John R.
A Reply to Bishop Hopkins' View of Slavery, and a Review of the Times. Philadelphia: J. W. Daughaday, 1865.
Refutation of John Henry Hopkins' "View of Slavery," which excuses slavery as not a biblical sin.

Bollier, David.
Crusaders & Criminals, Victims & Visionaries. Historic Encounters Between Connecticut Citizens and the United States Supreme Court. Hartford: [s. n., n. d.].
Includes brief discussion of the constitutional issues involved in the Amistad Case (pp. 19-23).

Bolton, Ethel Stanwood.
Shirley Uplands and Intervales: Annals of a Border Town of Old Middlesex, With Some Genealogical Sketches. Boston: Littlefield, 1914.
Contains genealogies of Shirley families that were considered "persons of color." Surnames includes Boston, Giger, Hasteneleven, Hazard, Henesy, and Mitchell (pp. 361-366).

Bonnet, J. Esprit.
États-unis de l'Amerique a la fin du XVIIIe siécle. 2 vols. Paris: Maradan, [1802].
Library lacks vol. 1. History of the United States to the end of the 18th century. Chapter on manners and customs (ch. 10) includes African-Americans in Southern states. This is a reissue of the 1795 sheets; first published in 1788.

Bonsall, Crosby.
The Case of the Dumb Bells. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.
Juvenile. A club of four boys, one of whom is African-American, get into difficulties when they attempt to connect up some used telephones to communicate with their clubhouse. Protagonist is the African-American boy.

Bonsall, Crosby.
El Caso del Forastero Hambriento. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.
Juvenile. Spanish language version of "The Case of the Hungry Stranger," in which four boys, one of whom is African-American, solve a mystery involving disappearing pies.

Bontemps, Arna, ed.
Five Black Lives: The Autobiographies of Venture Smith_James Mars_William Grimes_Rev. G. W. Offley_James L. Smith. Middletown: Wesleyan Press, 1971.
The full texts of five slave narratives, connected by their authors' various associations with Connecticut. The text of each narrative is based on the original editions (Venture Smith, 1897; James Mars, 1864; William Grimes, 1855; Rev. G. W. Offley, 1860; James L. Smith, 1881). Includes a brief introdution about the value of slave narratives as sources.

Boswell, George C. (ed.)
The Litchfield Book of Days: A Collection of the Historical, Biographical, and Literary Reminiscences of the Town of Litchfield, Connecticut Litchfield: Alex B. Shumway, 1899.
Entries for November 23rd and November 24th mention the manumission of Caesar, Oliver Wolcott's African-American servant, the Beechers, and Charles Smith, an African-American who worked on the Beecher's farm (pp. 191-192).

Bourne, Edward Emerson, ed.
The History of Wells and Kennebunk From the Earliest Settlement to the Year 1820, at Which Time Kennebunk Was Set Off, and Incorporated; With Biographical Sketches. Portland: B. Thurston, 1875.
Contains a very brief discussion of slavery in Wells, including some indication of monetary value of slaves, examples of probate distributions involving slaves, and anecdotal descriptions of specific slaves (pp. 406-410).

Bourne, George.
Picture of Slavery in the United States of America. Middletown: E. Hunt, 1834.
Dutch Reformed clergyman's expos? of the life of the slave and attack on slavery.

Bowdoin, James.
A Short Narrative of the Horrid Massacre in Boston, Perpetrated in the Evening of the Fifth Day of March, 1770, by Soldiers of the 29th Regiment, Which With the 14th Regiment Were then Quartered There; With Some Observations on the State of Things Prior to That Catastrophe. New York: John Doggett, Jr., 1849.
Charges Capt. Wilson with inciting African-Americans of the town to riot; notes death and funeral of Crispus Attucks; includes deposition of Robert Goddard relating to the death of Attucks.

Bowen, Clarence Winthrop.
Arthur and Lewis Tappan: A Paper Read at the Fiftieth Anniversary of the New York City Anti-Slavery Society, at the Broadway Tabernacle, October 2d, 1883. [New York?: 1883?]
Lauds efforts of two New York merchant-philanthropists in behalf of emancipation, establishment of schools and colleges for African-Americans, and financing the defense of the Amistad captives.

Boydston, Jeanne, and Mary Kelley and Anne Margolis.
The Limits of Sisterhood: The Beecher Sisters on Women's Rights and Women's Sphere. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.
Chapter Six of this book, that is both a biography and critical study, addresses the idea that Harriet Beecher Stowe's opposition to slavery sprang from the destructive effect slavery had on the family. Uncle Tom's Cabin is seen as demonstrating an idealogy of domesticity that is mocked by slavery.

Boyer, Richard Owen.
The Legend of John Brown: A Biography and a History. New York: Knopf, 1973.
Not only a complete biography of John Brown, but a history of the long "cold war" over slavery that preceded the American Civil War. The struggles of Americans, both African-American and white, to overthrow slavery are highlighted.


Boston: T. H. Carter, [c. 1845].
Juvenile. Includes brief vignette entitled "Strombo and His Dog," in which an African-American slave writes an epitaph for his dog (p. 51).

Bradford, Alden.
History of Massachusetts from July 1775 to the Year 1789. Boston: Wells & Lilly, 1825.
Scattered references to antislavery sentiments in early Massachusetts.

Brandegee, Arthur L. (comp.)
Farmington, Connecticut, the Village of Beautiful Homes: Photographic Reproductions, Illustrating every Home in the Town, Prominent People Past and Present, All of the School Children, Local Antiques, etc. 1906. Farmington: A. L. Brandegee & E. N. Smith, 1906.
Contains a detailed account of the Amistad captives (pp. 166-178).

Breckenridge, Frances A.
Recollections of a New England Town. Meriden, CT: The Journal Publ. Co., 1899.
Includes mentions of African-Americans Prince Duplex, Fred Cable, and Priam (pp. 24-25).

Breckinridge, Robert J.
An Address Delivered Before the Colonization Society of Kentucky, at Frankfort, on the 6th Day of January, 1831. Frankfort: A. G. Hodges, 1831.
"Hereditary slavery is at war with the principles of every species of social system." Advocates gradual emancipation; commends the climate and resources of Liberia, and colonization as a blessing to Africa as well as a solution to problem of free African-Americans in America.


A Brief Account of General Jackson's Dealings in Negroes, in a Series of Letters and Documents by His Own Neighbors. [s. l.: s. n.], 1828.
Campaign document, issued in 1828 by the National Republicans of New York State, depicting candidate Andrew Jackson as an abuser of his slaves. Includes illustration showing Jackson whipping a slave, while other slaves, some chained together, look on.

Brignano, Russell C.
Black Americans in Autobiography: An Annotated Bibliography of Autobiographies and Autobiographical Books Written Since the Civil War. Revised and expanded edition. Durham: Duke University Press, 1984.
Includes topical, institutional, title and holdings indexes.

Brisbane, William H.
Speech of the Rev. Wm. H. Brisbane, Lately a Slaveholder in South Carolina; Containing an Account of the Change in his Views on the Subject of Slavery. Delivered before the Ladies' Anti-slavery Society of Cincinnati, February 12, 1840. Hartford: S.S. Cowles, 1840.
Convinced that slavery was evil he emancipated his slaves and urges others to do the same; but asks: "What is a Christian slaveholder to do, whose State laws forbid the emancipation of his slaves?" Suggests voluntary payment of wages to slaves, and active agitation for repeal of laws forbidding emancipation.

Brissot de Warville, Jacques Pierre.
Neue Reise durch die Nordamerikanischen Freistaaten im Jahr 1788 ... mit Anmerkungen von Johann Reinhold Forster.... Berlin: Voss, 1792.
Includes descriptions of a school for African-Americans in Philadelphia; discussions of condition of African-Americans in America, slave labour, and a project for re-transporting African-Americans to Africa (pp. 132-169).

Brissot de Warville, Jacques Pierre.
Neue Reise in die vereinten Staaten von Nordamerika, gemacht im Jahr 1788 von dem franz?sichen Bürger J. P. Brissot (Warville). Braunschweig: In der Schulbuchhandlung, 1796.
Includes descriptions of a school for African-Americans in Philadelphia; discussions of condition of African-Americans in America, slave labour, and a project for re-transporting African-Americans to Africa (2:79-125).

Brissot de Warville, Jacques Pierre.
New Travels in the United States of America, Performed in 1788. London: J. S. Jordan, 1792.
Includes discussions of a school for African-Americans in Philadelphia; condition of African-Americans in America; slave labour; project for re- transporting African-Americans to Africa (pp. 262-311).

Brissot de Warville, Jacques Pierre.
New Travels in the United States of America, Performed in 1788. Dublin: W. Corbet, 1792.
Identical in content to the London edition (above).

Brissot de Warville, Jacques Pierre.
New Travels in the United States of America, Performed in 1788. New York: T. & J. Swords, 1792.
Same content (p. 144-171) as the London edition (above).

Brissot de Warville, Jacques Pierre.
Nouveau voyage dans les États-unis de l'Amérique septentrionale, fait en 1788. Paris: Buisson, 1791.
Includes discussions of a school for African-Americans in Philadelphia; condition of African-Americans in America; slave labor; project for re- transporting African-Americans to Africa (2:1-72).


Bristol, Connecticut ("In the Olden Time New Cambridge") Which Includes Forestville. Hartford: 1907; facs. rpt.
Facsimile edition. Includes bill of sale for a slave boy named Job (p. 33) and the indenture of Silpah to William Jerome (p. 57).

Bronson, Henry.
The History of Waterbury, Connecticut; The Original Township Embracing Present Watertown and Plymouth, and Parts of Oxford, Wolcott, Middlebury, Prospect and Naugatuck. Waterbury: Bronson Brothers, 1858.
Has a short section on Waterbury's slaves (pp. 320-323).


Brookline Historical Publication Society, Brookline, MA. Publications. First series, numbers 1 to 10, issued in 1895 and 1896; second series, numbers 11 to 20, issued 1897-1900. Brookline, MA: Riverdale, 1897-1900.
Publication #18 (1899) is a fourteen page essay by Harold Parker Williams entitled "Brookline in the Anti-Slavery Movement."

Brooks, Charles.
History of the Town of Medford, Middlesex County, Massachusetts from Its First Settlement, in 1630, to the Present Time, 1855. Boston: James M. Usher, 1855.
The topic of slavery is covered in pages 434-440 and includes several interesting items, among them a letter of instruction addressed to Capt. William Ellery for purchasing slaves, and the story of Caesar, who returned to Medford as a fugitive slave and was freed by his old Medford friends.

Brooks, Charles.
History of the Town of Medford, Middlesex County, Massachusetts from Its First Settlement, in 1630, to the Present Time, 1885. Boston: Rand, Avery, 1886.
Same as 1855 edition (pp. 352-358).

Brown, Abiel.
Genealogical History, With Short Sketches and Family Records of the Early Settlers of West Simsbury, Now Canton, Conn. Hartford: Case, Tiffany, 1856.
A "Chapter on the Black Citizens of West Simsbury" includes biographical sketches of James Baltimore, London Chester, Charles Prince, Simon Fletcher, and Caesar Wilcox (pp. 139-142).

Brown, Barbara W. and James Rose.
Black Roots in Southeastern Connecticut, 1650-1900. Detroit, MI: Gale Research Co., 1980.
Comprehensive cataloguing of African-American residents in New London County and parts of Middlesex and Tolland Counties, drawn from a wide variety of primary sources and divided into three categories: alphabetical list of surnames; alphabetical list of no surnames; and unidentified African-Americans arranged by town.

Brown, J. E.
Blacks in Connecticut, a Historic Profile. New Haven: Connecticut Afro-American Historical Society, 1979.
Brief biographical sketches of many Connecticut African-Americans: Doctor Primus, Venture Smith, Nero Hawley, Gordon Freeman, Rev. James Pennington, Rev. Amos Beman, Susan Elizabeth Freeman. Also mentions several African-American military organizations.

Brown, John, defendant.
Life, Trial and Conviction of Captain John Brown, Known as "Old Brown of Ossawatomie," With a Full Account of the Attempted Insurrection at Harper's Ferry. ... New York: Robert M. DeWitt, 1859.
Biographical excerpts of John Brown's life, an account of actions at Harper's Ferry, and official proceedings of Brown's trial are included in this contemporary account, along with some of his writings, his will, and notices of previous slavery insurrections in the U.S.

Brown, Warren.
History of the Town of Hampton Falls, New Hampshire From the Time of the First Settlement within Its Borders 1640 Until 1900. 2 vols. Manchester, NH: J. B. Clarke, 1900-1918.
Brief mention that by 1800, there were no slaves in Hampton Falls, followed by a copy of document freeing Caesar, slave of Abigail Brown. Mulatto carpenter Tobert Miller and his family are also mentioned.

Browne, Junius Henri.
Four Years in Secessia: Adventures Within and Beyond the Union Lines. Hartford: O. D. Case; Chicago: Sherwood, 1865.
Includes chapter on plantation life in the South (pp. 224-228); incidents of assistance from African-Americans while fleeing from Libby Prison; incidental references to African-Americans while a soldier in Civil War.

Bruser, Lawrence.
Political Antislavery in Connecticut, 1844-1858. Columbia University, Ph.D., 1974.
Thesis. Examination of effect of antislavery thought and agitation on evolution of Connecticut politics and the birth of the Republican Party in Connecticut.

Buck, Solon Justus.
The Planting of Civilization in Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, c1939.
Gives some statistics on slave ownership in 1790 in Fayette, Allegheny, Washington, Westmoreland and Bedford Counties. (pp. 279-281) A number of slave owners with large holdings are listed by name with a numerical accounting of the slaves held.

Buckingham, Samuel Giles.
The Life of William A. Buckingham, the War Governor of Connecticut. Springfield: W. F. Adams, 1894.
Biography of Governor Buckingham with emphasis on his activities during the Civil War and references to his antislavery sentiments. Based on "information from private sources and family and official documents."

Bundy, David A.
100 Acres More or Less: The History of the Land and People of Bow, New Hampshire. Canaan, NH: Bow Town History Committee, 1975.
Contains a section on abolitionism at the local, state, and national levels (pp. 282-310).

Burnham, Alfred Avery.
Speech of the Hon. A. A. Burnham, of Conn., Upon the Report of the Committee of Thirty-Three Upon the State of the Union, Delivered in the House of Representatives, February 16, 1861. Washington, D.C.: W. H. Moore, 1861.
Will not accede to the proposed Crittenden Compromise, so long as it affords "new and additional guaranties to slavery."

Burnham, Alfred Avery.
Who Are the Agitators? Speech of Hon. A. A. Burnham, of Connecticut, Delivered in the U. S. House of Representatives, March 7, 1860. [S.l.: s.n., n.d.]
Circulated as a Republican campaign document, Burnham's speech asserts that it is the southern slaveholders who are aggressively agitating the slavery question.

Burr, Nelson Rollin.
From Colonial Parish to Modern Suburb: A Brief Appreciation of West Hartford. Rev. ed. [s. l.: s. n., c1982.]
Mentions slaves and slavery and recounts the African-American governor incident involving Major Christopher French and Col. Philip Skene (pp. 24-26).

Burr, Nelson Rollin.
A Narrative and Descriptive Bibliography of New Jersey. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1964.
Referes to bibliographic materials relating specifically to African-Americans, slavery, and civil rights.

Burritt, Elihu.
Elihu Burritt's Miscellaneous Writings. 2nd ed. Worcester: T. Drew, 1850.
Includes "An American Slave in London," an antislavery lecture or essay (pp. 62-69).

Burritt, Elihu.
A Plan of Brotherly Copartnership of the North and South, for the Peaceful Extinction of Slavery. New York: Dayton and Burdick, 1856.
Proposes a plan for compensated emancipation.

Burritt, Elihu.
Thoughts and Things at Home and Abroad, With a Memoir by Mary Howitt. Boston: Phillips, Sampson, & Company; New York: J. C. Derby, 1854.
Includes essays "Circulation of Rum and Slavery"(pp. 123-126) and "An American Slave in London" (pp. 181-187).

Bushnell, Henry.
The History of Granville, Licking County, Ohio. Columbus, OH: Hann & Adair, 1889.
Chapter XLVI is a lengthy description of the antislavery activities of Granville, including a discussion of the violence which occurred during the Ohio Anti-Slavery Convention of 1836, and the story of John, a fugitive slave defended by Samuel White.

Bushnell, Horace.
The Census and Slavery; A Thanksgiving Discourse, Delivered in the Chapel at Clifton Springs, N. Y., November 29, 1860. Hartford: Lucius E. Hunt, 1860.
Makes the demographic argument that slavery is doomed as the territories fill up and free states are created. Urges the moral wrong of slavery, but opposes measures of extreme abolitionists.

Bushnell, Horace.
A Discourse on the Slavery Question, Delivered in the North Church, Hartford, Thursday Evening, Jan. 10, 1839. 3rd ed. Hartford: Case, Tiffany, 1839.
Condemnation of slavery on the basis of the injustices that bondage inflicts on African-Americans in relation to their marriage and family life, their subjugation to cruel treatment, and that legally it fails to recognise the slave as a being with a "moral and intellectual nature." Responds to those who attempt to excuse the continued toleration of slavery. (Library also has 2nd ed., 1839).

Bushnell, Horace.
The Northern Iron: A Discourse Delivered in the North Church, Hartford, on the Annual State Fast, April 14, 1854. Hartford: Edwin Hunt, 1854.
States that it is both morally and politically wrong to compromise with the evil of slavery from fear that to do so would drive the South out of the Union. Argues that on cultural and economic grounds it would be virtually suicidal for the South to try to stand alone on the foundation of a slave society.

Bushnell, Horace.
Politics Under the Law of God: A Discourse, Delivered in the North Congregational Church, Hartford, on Annual Fast of 1844. 2nd ed. Hartford: Edwin Hunt, 1844.
Christians have a responsibility to participate in public affairs, and to resist compromise with evil measures, among which is the extension of slavery. "Slavery is a great moral wrong and political evil."

Bushong, Eugene M.
Bondage: A Drama of Prudence Crandall's Canterbury School. [s. l.]: E. M. Bushong, 1936.
A play based on the agitation in Canterbury in 1833-1834 over Prudence Crandall's school for African-American girls. The play is written with the idea of presentation by church groups.

Butler, Randall Richardson.
New England Journalism and the Questions of Slavery, the South and Abolitionism: 1820-1861. Brigham Young University, Ph.D., 1979. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1980.
Thesis exploring the editorial attitude of leading northern partisan newspapers toward slavery, the South, and abolitionism.

Butler, Thomas Belden.
The Slave Question: Speech of Hon. T. B. Butler, of Connecticut, in the House of Representatives, March 12, 1850, ... on the President's Message Transmitting the Constitution of California. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Globe Office, 1850.
"While I admit the fundamental right of the States to enjoy, and to control, without let, hinderance, molestation, or complaint, the institution of slavery within their limits, I must oppose its admission into free territory."

Cadwell, Charles K.
The Old Sixth Regiment, Its War Record, 1861-5. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1875.
Includes some information on the 54th Massachusetts Volunteers in the attack on Fort Wagner.

Calhoun, John C.
Speeches of Hon. John C. Calhoun, and Hon. Daniel Webster, On the Subject of Slavery. Delivered in the Senate of the United States, March 1850. New York: Stringer & Townsend, 1850.
Calhoun's classic expression of the evolving Southern position that slavery is good for the slave and good for the master, and that because they are property, the Federal government has no power to prohibit slaves in the territories. Webster expresses his reasons for supporting all parts of the proposed Compromise, including the fugitive slave bill.

Camp, David, Nelson.
Camp's Geography, Embracing the Key to Mitchell's Series of Outline Maps. Hartford: O. D. Case, 1859.
Library also has 1857 edition. Geography textbook. Substantial entry for Africa includes references to inhabitants and the slave trade. Illustrations include one of "African Dwellings."

Camp, David Nelson.
Camp's Higher Geography, Prepared to Accompany Mitchell's Series of Outline Maps, and Designed for Grammar and High Schools, And for the Higher Classes of District Schools. Chicago: A. H. Andrews; New York: Sheldon, 1866.
Geography textbook. Substantial entry for Africa includes references to inhabitants of each country. Illustration of natives attacking lion.

Camp, David Nelson.
Camp's Intermediate Geography, Prepared to Accompany Mitchell's Series of Outline Maps, and Designed for Intermediate Schools and Classes. Hartford: O. D. Case; Chicago: George Sherwood, 1863.
Geography textbook. Entry for Africa includes references to inhabitants. Illustration of "Negro Village."

Camp, David Nelson.
Camp's Intermediate Geography, Prepared to Accompany Mitchell's Series of Outline Maps, and Designed for Primary Schools and Classes. St. Louis, Mo.: Western Publishing and School Furnishing, [n. d.].
Geography textbook. Entry for Africa includes brief reference to inhabitants.

Camp, David Nelson.
Higher Geography, Prepared to Accompany Mitchell's Series of Outline Maps, and Designed for Grammar and High Schools. And for the Higher Classes of District Schools. Hartford: Case, Lockwood, 1862.
Geography textbook. Substantial entry for Africa includes references to inhabitants of each country. Illustration of natives attacking lion.

Camp, David Nelson.
Higher Geography, Prepared to Accompany Mitchell's Series of Outline Maps, and Designed for Grammar and High Schools, And for the Higher Classes of District Schools. Hartford: O. D. Case; Chicago: George Sherwood, 1865.
Geography textbook. Substantial entry for Africa includes references to inhabitants of each country. Illustration of natives attacking lion.


The Campaign in Illinois, Last Joint Debate: Douglas and Lincoln at Alton, Illinois. Washington: Lemuel Towers, 1858.
A pro-Douglas report of the last in a series of debates in the 1858 Illinois Senatorial Campaign which focused on the issue of expansion of slavery into the territories.

Cane, Ena M.
Whately, 1771-1971. Northampton, MA: Town of Whately, 1972.
Includes brief mentions of the Black Ecumenical Commission (pp. 34, 36).

Canterbury, CT. Congregational Church.
Records of the Congregational Church in Canterbury, Connecticut, 1711-1811. Hartford: The Connecticut Historical Society and Society of Mayflower Descendants in the State of Connecticut, 1932.
Has eleven entries for African-Americans.

Carey, Matthew.
Letters on the Colonization Society, With a View of Its Probable Results, Under the Following Heads: the Origin of the Society; Increase of the Coloured Population; Manumission of Slaves in this Country; Declarations of Legislatures, and Other Assembled Bodies in Favour of the Society; Situation of the Colonists at Monrovia and Other Towns; Moral and Religious Character of the Settlers; Soil, Climate, Productions, and Commerce of Liberia; Advantages to the Free Coloured Population, by Emigration to Liberia; Disadvantages of Slavery to the White Population; Character of the Natives of Africa, Before the Irruptions of the Barbarians; Effects of Colonization on the Slave Trade, With a Slight Sketch of that Nefarious and Accursed Traffic. Published by the Connecticut Colonization Society, from the second enlarged and improved edition. Hartford: P. B. Gleason, [n. d.].
Believes that the situation of free blacks in America is "more unfavorable than that of many slaves," and advocates colonization to Liberia as affording African-Americans the best opportunity for advancement.

Carruth, Gordon, ed.
Encyclopedia of America Facts and Dates. 2nd ed. New York: Crowell, 1959.
Numerous entries pertaining to African-American history.

Carvalho, Joseph.
Black Families in Hampden County, Massachusetts, 1650-1855. [s. l.]: New England Historic Genealogical Society and Institute for Massachusetts Studies, Westfield State College, 1984.
Includes a short history of African-Americans in Hampden County; population tables; 140 pages listing African-Americans in Hampden county; bibliography of research sources and collections.

Caulkins, Frances Manwaring.
History of Norwich, Connecticut, From Its Possession by the Indians, to the Year 1866. Chester, CT: Society of the Founders of Norwich, 1976.
Has several entries for African-Americans and slaves including a section entitled "Africans" (pp. 328-331).


Celebration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement of Suffield, Connecticut, October 12, 13, and 14, 1920, with Sketches from Its Past and Some Record of Its Last Half Century and of Its Present. Suffield: General Executive Committee, 1921.
Has a section on slavery (pp. 129-131).

Chaffin, William Ladd.
History of the Town of Easton, Massachusetts. Cambridge: John Wilson & Son, 1886.
Contains sketches of several slaves in Easton, namely Heber and Hagar, Antony Hayward, and Kate Dean (pp. 432-437).


The Challange of Change: Three Centuries of Enfield, Connecticut, History. Canaan, NH: Enfield Historical Society, 1977.
Brief mention of slavery in Connecticut with names of a few Enfield African- Americans listed (pp. 25-26).


Chambers' Home Book, Or Pocket Miscellany; Containing a Choice Selection of Interesting and Instructive Reading For the Old and the Young. 6 vols. Boston: Gould & Lincoln, 1859.
Library has vol. 6. Juvenile. Includes article on Phillis Wheatley (part II: 32- 39), with some excerpts from her poems.

Champion, George.
Journal of the Rev. George Champion, American Missionary in Zululand, 1835-9. Ed. Alan R. Booth. Cape Town: Struik, 1967.
The journal, December 1835 to March 1838, of a Connecticut missionary to South Africa.

Champion, George.
Sketch of his life and extracts from his Journal, 1834-8. [New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, c. 1896.]
A brief biography introduces extracts from the journal of a Connecticut minister who was a missionary to the Zulus of South Africa from 1834, when he set sail, to November of 1838.

Channing, William Ellery.
Last Address, Delivered at Lenox, on the 1st of August, 1842, the Anniversary of Emancipation in the British West Indies. Boston: Oliver Johnson, 1842.
Antislavery address delivered two months before the death of the author.

Charter Oak Life Insurance Company.
Insurance of Negroes, With Tariff of Rate and Instructions. [Hartford: s. n., 1856].
Prepared by the general agent for Tennessee, this brochure for life insurance salesmen outlines the terms and conditions under which the company will insure the lives of African-Americans. The brochure remarks, "This company is by no means solicitous of securing a large Negro Insurance business, unless the owners are careful and judicious men," and, "It is the design of the Company to limit their insurance on Negroes to those who are kept and employed by their owners" (i. e., slaves).

Chase, George Wingate.
The History of Haverhill, Massachusetts, From Its First Settlement, in 1640, to the Year 1860. Haverhill: The Author, 1861.
Contains a synopsis of slavery in Haverhill, which includes population statistics, extracts from church records and tax records listing many Haverhill African-Americans by name, as well as the names of their masters (pp. 243-293). Also contains transcripts of bills of sales for several Haverhill African- Americans (pp. 659-660).

Chastellux, Francois Jean, Marquis de.
Travels in North America, in the Years 1780, 1781, and 1782. Dublin: Colles, Moncrieffe, White, 1787.
Includes description of condition of African-American slaves in Virginia (2:190- 200); records anecdote of Col. Langdon's freeing his African-American slave (p. 233).

Chastellux, Francois Jean, Marquis de.
Travels in North America, in the Years 1780, 1781, and 1782. Chapel Hill: Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1963.
A modern rev. translation with introd. and notes of the original English translation by Howard C. Rice, Jr.

Chastellux, Francois Jean, Marquis de.
Travels in North America in the Years 1780-1781-1782. New York: A. M. Kelley, 1790.
A travel narrative by the Marquis de Chastellux, who accompanied Rochambeau's army to America, this book comments on the unfortunate effects of adding a difference of race to the handicap of slavery, especially as regards to the abolition of slavery. The Marquis' answer to the problem is intermarriage_that of white men with African-American women.

Chastellux, Francois Jean, Marquis de.
Voyages de M. le marquis de Chastellux dans l'Amérique septentrionale dans les années 1780, 1781 & 1782. Paris: Prault, 1786.
Includes description of African-American slaves in Virginia (2:142-148); records anecdote of Col. Langdon's freeing his African-American slave (p. 233).

Chastellux, Francois Jean, Marquis de.
Voyages de M. le marquis de Chastellux dans l'Amérique septentrionale dans les années 1780, 1781 & 1782. 2nd ed. Paris: Prault, 1788-91.
Second edition of the French language publication.

Cheever, George Barrell.
The Commission from God, of the Missionary Enterprise, Against the Sin of Slavery.... An Address, Delivered in Tremont Temple, Boston, Thursday, May 27th, 1858, Before the American Missionary Society. Tracts for Thinking Men and Women, No. 3. Boston: J. P. Jewett; Cleveland, OH: H. P. B. Jewett, 1858.
Exposition on the sinfulness of slavery; recounts injustices practiced on African-Americans; stresses duty of Christian to oppose slavery in every possible way.

Chenery, Janet.
Wolfie. New York: Harper & Row, 1969.
Juvenile. Two boys, one African-American and the other white, capture a wolf spider and become interested in insects.

Chesebrough, Harriet Chapman.
Glimpses of Saybrook in Colonial Days. [Saybrook, CT]: Celebration 3 1/2, 1985.
Very brief list of slaves and their owners (p. 81).

Cheshire (CT) Bicentennial Commission.
Landmarks of Old Cheshire. Cheshire: The Committee, 1976.
Quotes the manumission record of Kate, slave to Deacon Israel Bunnell (p. 18), and notes the tradition that the Joshua Hotchkiss house was a stop on the Underground Railroad (p. 162).


Children's Friend. Albany, N.Y.: New York State Branch of the American Tract Society, 1826+.
Juvenile periodical. Vol. 1, no. 4 (April 1826) includes an article on the American Colonization Society (pp. 97-101).


The Children's Magazine. New York: General Protestant Episcopal Sunday School Union.
Library has vols. 7 and 9. Juvenile periodical. Vol. 7 (1835) includes story about "Little Amos" an African-American boy of New York City, who attended Sunday School. Vol. 9 (1837) includes a poem, "The Happy Negro" (p. 225), reprinted from Teacher's Offering (London).

Follen, Eliza L. (Ed.)
The Child's Friend; Designed for Families and Sunday Schools. Boston: Leonard C. Bowles, 1844-1847.
Library has vols. 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8. Juvenile. Vol. 2 (1844) includes poem, "Lines on hearing of the terror of the children of American slaves at the thought of being sold" (p 36), by Eliza L. Follen. Vol. 4 (1845) includes poem "The Slave's Complaint", (pp. 255-258) written by George, the slave of James Horton of North Carolina, together with the circumstances of its composition. Vol. 5 (1846) includes poem, "Inscription under the Picture of an Aged Negro Woman" (p. 143). Vol 6 (1846) quotes epitaph from a since demolished tombstone of an African-American man in Concord, Mass. (p. 28). Vol. 8 (1847) includes a story entitled "A Massachusetts Slave" (p. 233-236).


Christian Philanthropist: A Sketch of the Life of Mr. Daniel Hand, and of his Benefactions to the American Missionary Association for the Education of Colored People in the Southern States of America. New York: American Missionary Association, 1889.
Biography including genealogical information about Hand and full texts of addresses given at the Annual Meeting of the American Missionary Association (Providence, RI, October 23-25, 1888) on the occasion of the announcement of the Daniel Hand Educational Fund for Colored People.

Church Anti-Slavery Society.
Letter to the Churches. New York: N. Muller, 1859.
Constitution and statement of principles of an organization intended to "unite all Christians ... against slavery, and to concentrate the energies of the Christian ministry and of Christian Churches upon the extinction of that great sin."

Clarke, James Freeman.
The Rendition of Anthony Burns, Its Causes and Consequences: A Discourse on Christian Politics, Delivered in Williams Hall, Boston, on Whitsunday, June 4, 1854. Boston: Crosby, Nichols, and Prentiss & Sawyer, 1854.
Examines return of Burns to slavery, and slavery in general, from a social, legal, and moral perspective and condemns both. States that humane considerations override the purely legal position to which the "respectable" cling in approving Burns' return to servitude.

Clark, George L.
History of Connecticut, Its People and Institutions. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1914.
Includes chapters on slavery and the antislavery movement in Connecticut.

Clarke, Walter.
The American Anti-Slavery Society at War with the Church: A Discourse Delivered Before the First Congregational Church and Society, in Canterbury, Conn., June 30th, 1844. Hartford: Elihu Geer, 1844.
Spirited response to anti-clerical resolutions of American Anti-Slavery Society at its May 1844 meeting. Advocates that Christians not participate in the American Anti-Slavery Society. Does not discuss issue of slavery, per se. Library also has the second edition (1844).

Clemens, Samuel Langhorne.
Following the Equator: A Journey Around the World. Hartford: American, 1897.
This travel book shows Samuel Clemens trying to make sense of the Boers, the British, and Cecil Rhodes in South Africa. Their fights, hatreds, greeds, and especially their treatment of the natives come in for vintage Twain irony.

Cleveland, Stafford C.
History and Directory of Yates County, Containing a Sketch of Its Original Settlement by the Public Universal Friends, the Lessee Company and Others, with an Account of Individual Pioneers and Their Families; Also, of Other Leading Citizens. ... And a Narrative of the Universal Friend, her Society and Doctrine. 2 vols. Penn Yan, NY: The Author, 1873.
Mention of slave births (1: 371, 624). Library has volume 1 only.

Clouette, Bruce, and Matthew Roth.
Bristol, Connecticut: A Bicentennial History, 1785-1985. Canaan, NH: Bristol Public Library, 1984.
Very brief mention of slaves and indentured servants in early Bristol (p. 28), comments on increase in African-American population during WWII (p. 230), and racial tensions in the 1960s and 1970s (p. 240).

Coburn, Frederick W.
History of Lowell and Its People. 3 vols. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing, 1920.
Volume I. "Slavery in Old Dracut" is discussed with anecdotal comments on the Varnum family's Cuff and the Lews family of Groton, Chelmsford and Dracut (pp. 61-62). A section entitled "Early Anti-Slavery Spirit" details "the rescue of Silas Royal, faithful servant of the East Dracut Varnums, from kidnappers."

Cogswell, Leander Winslow.
History of the Town of Henniker, Merrimack County, New Hampshire, From the Date of the Canada Grant by the Province of Massachusetts, in 1735, to 1880; With a Genealogical Register of the Families of Henniker. Concord, NH: Republican Press, 1880.
Includes anecdotes about "Major" Jeremiah Crocker, Nero Prime (who left the town and eventually became "a servant in the family of the czar of Russia"), and John Haskel. A mention is made that since 1849, no African-American had made Henniker his permanent residence.

Cohen, Dorothy Block.
Ellington: Chronicles of Change. Ellington, CT: The Town, 1987.
Contains a chapter on the early African-American families of Ellington.

Cohen, Miriam.
Best friends. New York: Macmillan, 1971.
Juvenile. Discusses tensions that can strain friendships. Setting is an integrated kindergarten.

Cohen, Miriam.
Will I Have a Friend? New York: Macmillan, 1967.
Juvenile. Discusses the concept of friendship in an integrated kindergarten setting.

Cole, Donald B.
Jacksonian Democracy in New Hampshire, 1800-1851. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970.
Chapter IX, "The Slavery War, 1843-1851," discusses the effects of the abolitionist movement on the Democratic Party in New Hampshire (pp. 216-233).

Cole, J. R.
History of Washington and Kent Counties, Rhode Island. New York: W. W. Preston, 1889.
Contains a brief description of slavery in Washington and Kent counties, naming some of the more prominent Rhode Island families who owned slaves (pp. 39-46). Statistics included reflect the number of ships per state involved in the African slave trade, population statistics, and legislative acts leading to the abolition of slavery in Rhode Island. Mentions the tradition of the African- American governor (p. 390).

Coleman, Peter J.
The Transformation of Rhode Island, 1790-1860. Providence: Brown University Press, 1963.
Includes a chapter (#2) on the maritime economy of Rhode Island that, in part, discusses the rise of the slave trade in 18th century Rhode Island.

Collier, Christopher.
An Essay Toward a Bibliography of Connecticut History for Teachers. [s. l.: s. n., c1980].
Has a section on the African-American experience in Connecticut (pp. 85-90).

Collier, Christopher.
The Literature of Connecticut History. Middletown, CT: Connecticut Humanities Council, 1983.
Contains bibliographic references to slavery and the African-American experience (pp. 242-252).

Collier, Edward A.
A History of Old Kinderhook. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1914.
Has a brief section on slavery and an appendix listing Kinderhook households owning slaves, taken from the 1790 census (pp. 145-148, 552-559).

Colonization Society of Connecticut.
An Address to the Public, by the Managers of the Colonization Society of Connecticut; With an Appendix. New Haven: Treadway & Adams, 1828.
Contains constitution, treasurer's report and statement of purpose of Connecticut's auxiliary to the American Colonization Society.

Colonization Society of Connecticut.
Annual Report. New Haven: Baldwin & Treadway, 1829-1830.
Second and third reports. Includes communications from Liberia; prints documents relating to colonizationists' activities.

Colton, Calvin.
The Last Seven Years of the Life of Henry Clay. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1856.
This biography, written shortly after the death of Henry Clay by a man with access to Clay's private papers, deals extensively with the Compromise of 1850 and Clay's reasoning on it. It also deals with Clay's stand on slavery and the emancipation of the slave. The appendix contains Mr. Clay's resolutions on the Compromise, speeches to the Senate on the Compromise, and extensive correspondence.

Communist Party. Connecticut. Hartford.
Workers of Hartford, Negro and White, Defend the Soviet Fatherland. [s.l.: s.n.], 1930.
Broadside. Announces a pro-communist and pro-Soviet lecture to be held at the Lyric Hall, 585 Park St., 23 Dec. 1930.

Comstock, Sarah.
Roads to the Revolution. New York: MacMillan, 1928.
This book of travel and history contains an ancedote about a slave's aiding the American advance on Stony Point, NY, during the Revolution.

Concord, NH. City History Commission.
History of Concord, New Hampshire, From the Original Grant in Seventeen Hundred and Twenty-five to the Opening of the Twentieth Century. 2 vols. Concord: Rumford Press, 1903.
Contains the statement that the slaves in the town were considered free with the adoption of the state constitution and a related anecdote about a fifteen-year- old slave named Nancy who stayed with her former owners for the remainder of her long life. Also contains a section on the antislavery movement in the town, state, and nation. (pp. 410-418.)

Connecticut. Adjutant General's Office.
Service Records, Connecticut Men and Women in the Armed Forces of the United States During World War 1917-1920. Hartford: Adjutant General, [1961?].
Town by town listing of men and women who served from Connecticut in WWI. Most listings designate race.

Connecticut. Adjutant General's Office.
Catalogue of Connecticut Volunteer Organizations ... in the Service of the United States, 1861-1865 ... and Brief Summaries, Showing the Operations and Service of the Several Regiments and Batteries. Hartford: Brown & Gross, 1869.
Includes section on 29th Infantry ("Colored") (pp. 890-918) and the 30th Infantry ("Colored") Part of the Thirty-First U.S. Colored Troops (pp. 919- 929).

Connecticut. Adjutant General's Office.
Record of Service of Connecticut Men in the Army and Navy of the United States During the War of the Rebellion. Hartford: Case, Lockwood & Brainard, 1889.
Gives brief regimental histories and service records of the men from Connecticut who served in the Civil War. Included are Connecticut's "colored" regiments.

Connecticut. Adjutant General's Office.
Record of Service of Connecticut Men in the I. War of the Revolution. II. War of 1812. III. Mexican War. Hartford: [s. n.], 1889.
Includes records of many African-American soldiers.

Connecticut. General Assembly.Joint Select Committee to Whom Was Referred the Subject of African Colonization.
Report of the Joint Select Committee to Whom Was Referred the Subject of African Colonization. May session, 1852. Document No. 15. New Haven: Osborn and Baldwin, 1852.
Recommends official legislative endorsement of the American Colonization Society.

Connecticut. Permanent Commission on the Status of Women.
Great Women in Connecticut History. Hartford: The Commission, 1986.
These brief biographical sketches include not only Harriet Beecher Stowe and Prudence Crandall but also several African-American women of note, such as Marion Anderson and Ann Petry.

Connecticut Baptist Anti-Slavery Convention.
Anti-Slavery Meeting. [s. l.: s. n., 184-.]
Announces meeting for Nov. 10 (year not given) and lists speakers.

Connecticut Bible Society.
A Religious Census of Hartford, Taken by the Connecticut Bible Society, 1889. Hartford: Plimpton, 1889.
Describes settlement and social work; classifies inmates of jail and town farm by sex, national origin, and race (p. 21).

Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities.

Collection of serial publications by this agency and its predecessors, the Connecticut State Inter-racial Commission, and the Connecticut State Commission on Civil Rights. Scattered holdings, 1948-ca. 1970.

Connecticut Historical Society (The), Hartford, CT.

Bulletin. vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 1934) + Eleanor Alexander's "A Portrait of Cinque" is an historical critique of Nathaniel Jocelyn's famous portrait (49:30-51). Alfred M. Bingham's "Squatter Settlements of Freed Slaves in New England" speculates on several archaeological sites in New London County (41:65-68). Gwendolyn Evans Logan's "The Slave in Connecticut During the Revolution" is a brief overview of Connecticut African-Americans' participation in the Revolutionary War and its effect on African-American emancipation (30:73-80). "A Slave Mutiny, 1764" is an account of the slave mutiny on the brig Hope (31:30-32). David O. White's "Augustus Washington, Black Daguerreotypist of Hartford" is a biographical sketch of Washington, chronicling his life in Hartford from 1844-1855 (39:14- 19); "The Fugitive Blacksmith of Hartford: James W. C. Pennington" is a biographical sketch of a prominent African-American minister (49:5-29); and "Hartford's African Schools" is a discussion of African-American education in Hartford during a portion of the 19th century. Lists Augustus Washington, Ann Plato, Selah Africanus, and Rev. James Pennington among the teachers (39:47-53).

Connecticut Society for the Promotion of Freedom, and the Relief of Persons Unlawfully Holden in Bondage.
Constitution. 1792. [New Haven: Thomas & Samuel Green, 1792.]
Constitution and minutes of organizational meeting of organization opposed to African-American slavery and seeking "to promote the education, enlighten the minds, and correct the morals of Negroes, to render them industrious, and furnish them with the means of honest employment."

Connecticut State Colonization Society.
Address of the Managers of the Connecticut State Colonization Society to Their Fellow-citizens. [s. l.]: The Society, [1844?].
Appeal for support by the re-organized state auxiliary of the American Colonization Society. Includes form of a constitution for a local society.

Connecticut State Colonization Society.
Annual Report of the Connecticut State Colonization Society, Adopted at Their Meeting Held in New Haven, May 22, 1844. Hartford: Case, Tiffany & Burnham, 1844.
First annual report of the reorganized State auxiliary of the American Colonization Society.

Connecticut State Convention of Colored Men.
Proceedings of the Connecticut State Convention of Colored Men Held at New Haven, on the September 12th and 13th, 1849. New Haven: William H. Stanley, 1849.
Includes minutes, resolutions, an "Address to the Colored Men of Connecticut," and an address "To the Voters of the State of Connecticut."

Connecticut State Temperance and Moral Reform Society of Colored Americans. Committee.
To the Good People of the State of Connecticut. New Milford: The Committee, 1847.
An appeal for "granting the colored people of this State, the Elective Franchise."


Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of Connecticut. 2 vols. New Haven: William L. Kingsley & J. H. Penham, 1861; [s. l.: s. n.], 1967.
Brief historical sketches of the Congregational churches of Connecticut, specifically indentifying those raised as "colored" congregations.

Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies Established in Different Parts of the United States.
Minutes of the Proceedings of a Convention of Delegates From the Abolition Societies Established in Different Parts of the United States, Assembled at Philadelphia, on the First Day of January, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Ninety-Four, and Continued, by Adjournments, Until the Seventh Day of the Same Month, Inclusive. Philadelphia: Zachariah Poulson, 1794. Annual, 1794-1803 (except 1799 and 1802). Library has no. 1 (1794), 3 (1796), and 5 (1798)


Cooley, Timothy Mather.
Sketches of the Life and Character of the Rev. Lemuel Haynes, A.M., For Many Years Pastor of a Church in Rutland, Vt., and Late in Granville, New-York. ... With Some Introductory Remarks by William B. Sprague, D.D. New York: Harper, 1837.
Biography and encomium of Rev. Lemuel Haynes, an African-American minister to white churches in Vermont, New York, and Connecticut in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Included are many letters and sermons written by Haynes. The book has a definite theological cast.

Cothren, William.
History of Ancient Woodbury, Connecticut, from the First Indian Deed in 1659, Including the Present Towns of Washington, Southbury, Bethlem, Roxbury, and Part of Oxford and Middlebury. 3 vols. Waterbury, CT: Bronson, 1854-79.
Volume II contains a denuciation of slavery (pp. 1078-1094).

Cottrol, Robert J.
Black Providence, 1800-1860: A Community's Formation. New Haven: Yale University, 1978.
A study of the development of the African-American community in Providence examining its slave history, and social and political progress during the 19th century.

Crevecoeur, Michel Guillaume St. Jean de.
Letters From an American Farmer. London: T. Davies & L. Davis, 1782.
Includes description of slavery in South Carolina, including case of an African- American man suspended in a cage and left to die there. Condemns slavery and contrasts it with society life in Charlestown.

Crevecoeur, Michel Guillaume St. Jean de.
Lettres d'un cultivateur Americain ... Paris: Couchet, 1787.
Includes description of slavery in South Carolina; "Pensées sur l'esclavage et sur les négres" (2:372-384).


The Crisis, No. 1; Or, Thoughts on Slavery, Occasioned by the Missouri Question. New Haven: A. H. Maltby, 1820.
"Slavery is not only pernicious as it is immoral and unjust but it is totally inconsistent with the principles and security of a republican government."


The Crisis, No. 2; Or, Thoughts on Slavery, Occasioned by the Missouri Question. New Haven: A. H. Maltby, 1820.
If the slave is an inferior being it is because servitude and cruel treatment have made him so.

Crissey, Theron Wilmot, comp.
History of Norfolk, Litchfield County, Connecticut. Everett, MA: Massachusett Publishing, 1900.
"Some of the Colored People" includes anecdotes about the Mars, Freedom, Danforth and Smith families. Includes photographs of Samuel Smith, Deacon James Mars, and Mrs. Bilah Freedom (pp. 370-374).

Crocker, Henry.
History of the Baptists in Vermont. Bellows Falls, VT: P. H. Gobie, 1913.
Contains a short discussion of the various committees appointed and resolutions concerning slavery adopted by the Vermont Baptist Conventions 1837-1859 (pp. 463-470).

Crockett, Walter Hill.
Vermont, the Green Mountain State. 4 vols. New York: Century History, 1921.
Contains a transcription of Ebenezer Allen's certificate of emancipation for Dinah Mattis, a slave captured in a raid near the mouth of the Boquet River (2:163-164). Volume III, Chapter XXXII, "The Growing Hatred of Slavery" (pp. 289-415) is a study of Vermont's political history from 1837 to about 1852, with emphasis on its antislavery attitudes and their effects on the political climate.

Croffut, W. A., and John M. Morris.
The Military and Civil History of Connecticut During the War of 1861-65, Comprising a Detailed Account of the Various Regiments and Batteries, Through March, Encampment, Bivouac, and Battle; Also Instances of Distinguished Personal Gallantry, and Biographical Sketches of Many Heroic Soldiers; Together With a Record of the Patriotic Action of Citizens at Home, and of the Liberal Support Furnished by the State in Its Executive and Legislative Departments. 3rd ed., rev. New York: Ledyard Bill, 1869.
Regimental index lists numerous references for the 29th and 30th Connecticut "colored" regiments.

Crofut, Florence S. Marcy.
Guide to the History and the Historic Sites of Connecticut. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1937.
Many references to abolitionists, African-Americans, slaves, and the Underground Railroad.

Cross, Lucy R. H.
History of Northfield, New Hampshire, 1780-1905, In Two Parts: With Many Biographical Sketches and Portraits. Concord, NH: Rumford, 1905.
Town history containing mention of seating arrangements for "colored friends" in the Congregational meeting house (c. 1820) and the 1753 theft of two slaves, Peer and Tom, by Indians.

Crummell, Alexander.
The Duty of a Rising Christian State to Contribute to the World's Well-Being and Civilization. The Annual Oration Before the Common Council and the Citizens of Monrovia, Liberia, July 26, 1855. [Boston]: The Massachusetts Colonization Society, 1857.
The author, an African-American, took an A.B. at Queen's College, Cambridge, and became a Protestant Episcopal Missionary from the U.S. to Liberia.

Crummell, Alexander.
The Relations and Duties of Free Colored Men in America to Africa: A Letter to Charles B. Dunbar, M. D., Esq., of New York City. Hartford: Case, Lockwood, 1861.
Plea of an African-American Episcopal clergyman educated in England, and formerly serving an African-American Episcopal church in New York City, for free African-Americans to take an active interest in evangelising, settling, and assisting development of Liberia. At the time of writing, Crummell was resident in Liberia.

Cuffe, Paul.
Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Paul Cuffe, a Pequot Indian. Vernon: Bill, 1839.
Cuffe was the son of a well-known African-American Quaker. Much of this narrative is taken up with description of a whaling voyage Cuffe undertook.

Cummings, Jacob Abbot.
Introduction to Ancient and Modern Geography, On the Plan of Goldsmith and Guy, Comprising Rules for Projecting Maps; With an Atlas. 9th ed. Boston: Cummings & Hilliard; Cambridge: Hilliard & Metcalf, 1823.
The moralistic tone of this geography brands the Egyptians as "indolent, ill- looking, and slovenly," condemns the slave trade and looks forward to a time when Christian nations will redeem themselves to the Africans by teaching them the benefits of true religion and civilization. Atlas wanting.

Cummings, Jacob Abbot.
An Introduction to Ancient and Modern Geography, To Which Are Added Rules For Projecting Maps, and the Use of Globes; Accompanied With an Ancient and a Modern Atlas. 10th ed. New Haven: J. Babcock, 1826.
Geography textbook. Entries for Southern states, West Indies, and Africa include references to inhabitants. Illustrations for Africa include "Hottentot Village" and "Negroes and Hottentots."

Curtis, John Gould.
History of the Town of Brookline, Massachusetts. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1933.
Chapter X, "Brookline in the Civil War," includes brief discussions of Brookline's slave owners, antislavery, and abolition and anti-abolition, plus short narratives regarding the escape and recapture of fugitive slaves in Brookline.

Curtiss, Lucy Sackett.
The Congregational Church, Warren, Connecticut, 1756-1956. [s. l.]: Breewer-Borg, 1956.
Mentions slavery in Warren, with additional comments on the antislavery movement and the underground railway (pp. 63-69).

Dana, James.
The African Slave Trade; A Discourse Delivered in the City of New-Haven, September 9, 1790, Before the Connecticut Society for The Promotion of Freedom. New-Haven: Printed Thomas and Samuel Green, 1791.
Condemns slave trade on religious and economic grounds; cites statistics from the 1790 census relating to proportions of slaves to free populations in the states, value of trade, etc.

Oedel, Howard T.(Ed.)
Daniel Hand of Madison, Connecticut, 1801-1891. Howard T. Madison, CT: Madison Historical Society, 1973.
Biography of philanthropist Daniel Hand with detailed information regarding the Daniel Hand Educational Fund for Colored People for the years 1888-1972.

Darton, William.
Little Truths; Containing Information on Divers Subjects, For the Instruction of Children. Vol. 2. Boston: Samuel Hall, 1794.
Juvenile. See note for 1800 ed.

Darton, William.
Little Truths Better Than Great Fables: Containing Information on Divers Subjects, For the Instruction of Children. Vol 2. Philadelphia: J. and J. Crukshank, 1800.
Juvenile. Includes brief essays on the question of why some people are African- American, where African-Americans come from, evils of slavery and the slave trade (pp. 12-18).

Darton, William.
Little Truths. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Johnson and Warner, 1812.
Juvenile. Fuller treatment of the question of slavery than the Philadelphia edition of J. and J. Crukshank (1800) including an anecdote of one John, African-American master of a fishing boat, intended to demonstrate intellectual and moral capabilities of African-Americans (pp. 11-17).

D'Arusmont, Mrs. Frances (Wright).
Views of Society and Manners in America; In a Series of Letters From that Country to a Friend in England, During the Years 1818, 1819, and 1820. New-York: E. Bliss and E. White, 1821.
Travel narrative. Contains a letter with one long, rambling section on the slave trade and African-Americans. The author asserts that in the North, educational opportunities for African-Americans are "every where." Also mentions colonization as a solution to American slavery (pp. 45-57).

Davis, Charles Henry Stanley.
History of Wallingford, Conn., from Its Settlement in 1670 to the Present Time, Including Meriden, which Was One of Its Parishes Until 1806, and Cheshire, which Was Incorporated in 1780. Meriden, CT: The Author, 1870.
Contains a section on slavery, which includes anecdotes and excerpts from the town records, and a chapter on abolitionism and the "Meriden Riot" (pp. 339- 344; 502-507).

Davis, William Thomas.
Ancient Landmarks of Plymouth. 2nd ed. Boston: Damrell & Upham, 1899.
Mentions the organization, in 1866, of the African Methodist Society (p. 106).

Day, Isaac.
Advertisement. Colchester: I. Day, 1753.
Broadside. Describes and offers reward for return of a runaway mulatto servant or slave. This is believed to be the earliest known British North American handbill for a runaway slave.

Dean, Sidney.
Troubles of the Country, Their Cause and Cure: Speech of Hon. Sidney Dean, of Connecticut, in the House of Representatives, July 23, 1856, against the Extension of Slavery into Territory now Free. Washington, D.C.: Buell & Blanchard, 1856.
Formerly a Methodist clergyman, he calls the union of free and slave societies in one nation a "political and moral impossibility." Quotes full text of resolutions of Connecticut General Assembly of 15 June 1855 deploring the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the 1850 Fugitive Slave Law.


A Declaration of the Sentiments of the People of Hartford, Regarding the Measures of the Abolitionists. Hartford: [s.n.], 1835.
Broadside. Anti-abolitionist statement or petition.

De Forest, John William.
A Union Officer in the Reconstruction. Ed. James H. Croushore and David Morris Potter. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1948.
Includes extensive contemporary commentary on the social, political and economic condition of African-Americans in the South during Reconstruction.

DeLarm, Alan.
Colebrook Stories. Colebrook, CT: Colebrook Historical Society, 1979.
Includes the "Story of a Slave," a narrative of the Mars family (pp. 48-65).

Demars, Ronald F.
Modernization in a New England Town: A History of Willington, Connecticut. Willington: Willington Historical Society, 1983.
Has scattered references to African-Americans, including a brief recounting of the story of Edward Carter (p. 301).

Devlin, William E.
We Crown Them All: An Illustrated History of Danbury. Woodland Hills, CA: Windsor Publications, 1984.
Has a brief mention of the growth of the African-American community in Danbury in the 19th Century (p. 43). Names some African-American leaders and organizations.

Dexter, Henry M.
Our National Condition, and its Remedy: A Sermon Preached in the Pine Street Church, Boston, on Sunday, June 22, 1856. Boston: John P. Jewett, 1856.
Identifies slavery as the principal national evil; condemns it on ethical and political grounds; notes its vicious effect on the slaveholder, but does not discuss its effect on the slave.

Dimock, Susan Whitney, comp.
Births, Marriages, Baptisms and Deaths, from the Records of the Town and Churches of Coventry, Connecticut, 1711-1844. New York: Baker & Taylor, 1987.
Has twenty-one entries for "negroes."

Dixon, James.
The Amistad Claim: Speech of Hon. James Dixon, of Connecticut, in the Senate of the United States, January 9, 1860. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Globe Office, 1860.
Legal analysis of the property claims in the Amistad case; states that as the Mendi Africans were never property, the victims of kidnapping, RuĦs and Montez, have no claim for indemnity.

Dixon, James.
Speech of Mr. Dixon, of Connecticut, Against the Extension of Slave Territory; Delivered in the House of Representatives of the U. S., Feb. 9, 1847. Washington, D.C.: [s. n.], 1847.
Deplores extension of slavery into Texas; slavery must not encroach on any territory acquired as result of war with Mexico.

Doane, Gilbert Harry.
Searching for Your Ancestors: The How and Why of Genealogy. 5th ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1980.
Lists sources for African-American ancestral research (pp 187-194).

Donahue, Barbara.
Farmington Versus Slavery. Farmingtion, CT: Farmington Board of Education, 1984.
Curriculum guide on slavery and the town of Farmington.

Doolittle, James Rood.
The Calhoun Revolution, Its Basis and Its Progress: Speech of Hon. J. R. Doolittle, of Wisconsin, Delivered in the United States Senate, December 14, 1859. [s. l.: s. n., 1859?]
States that historically even the South looked upon slavery as in some degree unfortunate, and that it was generally agreed that Congress might legislate to limit its expansion. Takes issue with the Administration and the Dred Scott Case that slaves are property that Congress cannot prohibit from the territories or from any free state.

Douglas, Stephen A.
Admission of Kansas Under the Wyandott Constitution: Speech of Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, in Reply to Mr. Seward and Mr. Trumbull, delivered in the Senate of the United States, February 29th, 1860; Published by Order of the Connectiuct Democratic State Central Committee, March 1860. Hartford: Williams, Wiley & Turner, 1860.
"In my opinion, this Government was made by white men for the benefit of white men and their posterity forever, and should be administered by white men, and by none other whatsoever.... I would not let one of the negroes, free or slave, either vote or hold office anywhere...."

Douglas, Stephen A.
Speech of Hon. S. A. Douglas, of Illinois, Against the Admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution, delivered in the Senate of the United States, March 22, 1858. Washington, D.C.: [s. n.], 1858.
Douglas opposes the logical outcome of his doctrine of squatter sovereignty.

Douglass, Frederick.
Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, Written by Himself: His Early Life as a Slave, His Escape From Bondage, and his Complete History to the Present Time, Including His Connection With the Anti-slavery Movement; His Labors in Great Britain as Well as in His Own Country; His Experience in the Conduct of an Influential Newspaper; ... With Many Other Interesting and Important Events of his Most Eventful Life; With an Introduction, by Mr. George L. Ruffin, of Boston. Hartford: Park Publishing, 1881.
Last of Douglass' three autobiographies; includes excerpts from some of his speeches.

Douglass, Frederick.
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. Ed. Benjamin Quarles. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967.
Originally published in 1845 and circulated as an antislavery document, this is the text of the first of three autobiographies by Douglass. Includes introduction by Quarles, map and chronology of Douglass' life.

Dow, George Francis.
Slave Ships and Slaving. Salem, MA: Marine Research Society, 1927.
General study of slave-trading, with studies of particular slavers and voyages.

Downs, Charles Algernon.
History of Lebanon, N. H., 1761-1887. Concord, NH: Rumford, 1908.
Contains brief discussion of abolitionism and related topics during the period of 1840-1850 (pp. 258-261).

Draper, James.
History of Spencer, Massachusetts, From Its Earliest Settlement to the Year 1860, Including a Brief Sketch of Leicester, to the Year 1753. 2nd ed., Worcester: Howland, [1860].
Two pages on slavery, which include a very general history of slavery in Massachusetts and a few names of the slaves or servants in Spencer.

Drew, Thomas.
The John Brown Invasion: An Authentic History of the Harper's Ferry Tragedy, With Full Details of the Capture, Trial, and Execution of the Invaders, and of All the Incidents Connected Therewith, with a Lithographic Portrait of Capt. John Brown, from a Photograph by Whipple. Boston: J. Campbell, 1860.
Report of Brown's trial, last days, and execution, with related documents.

Drury, John.
Old Illinios Houses. Illinois State Historical Society. Occasional Papers. Springfield, IL: State of Illinois, 1948.
Includes the story of Owen Lovejoy of Princeton—preacher, statesman, and stalwart abolitionist whose home was a station on the Underground Railroad.

Dummer, Joseph N.
A Brief History of the Byfield Congregational Church and Parish, From 1702 to 1888. Salem, MA: Observer Book and Job Print, 1888.
Reviews the controversy which arose between Rev. Moses Parsons and Deacon Benjamin Colman over the pastor's slaves; included is an anecdote about Violet, who refused to be set free by Mr. Parsons (pp. 23-26).

Dumond, Dwight Lowell.
A Bibliography of Antislavery in America. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1981.
Originally printed in 1961; includes printed materials only.

Duncan, John Morison.
Travels Through Part of the United States and Canada in 1818 and 1819. Glasgow, Scotland: University Press; London: Hurst, Robinson, 1823.
Includes impressions of slavery in America (2:251-262), and incidental remarks on free African-Americans in northern American cities.

Durso, Joseph.
Baseball and the American Dream. [s. l.]: Sporting News, [n. d.].
History of professional baseball, with material on African-American leagues and integration of pro-baseball.

Dwelley, Jedediah.
History of the Town of Hanover, Massachusetts With Family Genealogies. [s. l.]: Town of Hanover, 1910.
Contains brief mentions (vital statistics, anecdotes) of many of the slaves/servants in Hanover, along with an overview of slavery in Massachusetts (pp. 181-186).

Dwight, William Theodore.
The Work and the Workmen: A Discourse in Behalf of the American Home Missionary Society, Preached in the City of New York, May 8, 1859. New York: American Home Missionary Society, 1859.
Includes section at end stressing the importance of free Christians settling the West to prevent spread of slavery, which he asserts is inimical to the spirit of freedom, industry, and religion.

Eaton, Lilley.
Genealogical History of the Town of Reading, Mass., Including the Present Towns of Wakefield, Reading, and North Reading, With Chronological and Historical Sketches from 1639 to 1874. Boston: Mudge & Son, 1874.
Lists slaves held in Reading prior to the Revolutionary War (pp. 542-543).

Edwards, Harry Stillwell.
Eneas Africanus. Macon, GA: J. W. Burke Company, 1923.
Historical fiction. Story of the homecoming to Georgia, after eight years of wandering, of a faithful slave. From the author's preface: "Is the story true? Everyone says it is."

Edwards, Jonathan.
The Injustice and Impolicy of the Slave Trade, and of The Slavery of the Africans: Illustrated in a Sermon Preached Before the Connecticut Society for the Promotion of Freedom, and For the Relief of Persons Unlawfully Holden in Bondage, at their Annual Meeting in New-Haven, Sept. 15, 1791. 2nd ed. Boston: Wells & Lilly, 1822.
Library also has the third (1833) edition. Asserts that to "hold a negro slave is a greater sin than fornication, theft or robbery." Spirited religious and social condemnation of slavery; challanges the white to put himself in the African-American's position.

Eldridge, Elleanor.
Elleanor's Second Book.... Providence: B. T. Abro, 1847.
This "sequel" to the Memoirs of Elleanor Eldridge was also printed to raise money for Elleanor to help her with her troubles. However, it contains only an abridgement of the memoirs. The other material does not deal with Elleanor.

Eldridge, Elleanor.
Memoirs of Elleanor Eldridge.... Providence: B. T. Albro, 1841
This biography of Elleanor Eldridge, an American of African-Indian ancestry residing in Rhode Island in the early 19th century, is a plea for help for someone who has been cheated, and probably cheated because of the color of her skin. Contains antislavery poetry in the appendix.

Eldridge, Elleanor.
Memoirs of.... 2nd ed. Providence: B. T. Albro, 1847.
This biography of Elleanor Eldridge, an American of African-Indian ancestry residing in Rhode Island in the early 19th century, is a plea for help for someone who has been cheated, and probably cheated because of the color of her skin. Contains antislavery poetry in the appendix.

Eldridge, Joseph.
Does the Bible Sanction Slavery? A Discourse Delivered at Norfolk, Conn., February 24, 1861. Litchfield: Enquirer Office Print, 1861.
Examines the question of relation of Scripture to slavery. States that the spirit of the scripture overrides the law and condemns slavery.

Elliot, Charles Wyllys.
The New England History, From the Discovery of the Continent by the Northmen, A. D. 986, to the Period When the Colonies Declared Their Independence, A. D. 1776. 2 vols. New York: Charles Scribner, 1857.
Chapter 10, "Slavery in New England" (pp. 167-205) includes comments on slavery from Biblical times to 1824.

Ellis, George E.
The Puritan Age and Rule in the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay 1629-1685. 3rd ed. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1891.
Briefly mentions the "Negro Plots" of New York (1712 and 1741), a Salem-like hysteria resulting from the "alleged plots of slaves to burn and plunder the city" (p. 563).

Eno, Arthur L., Jr. (ed.)
Cotton Was King: A History of Lowell, Massachusetts. [s. l.]: New Hampshire Publishing Company & Lowell Historical Society, 1976.
Discusses Lowell's mixed reaction to the antislavery movement of the 1830's- 1850's (pp. 127-130); a footnote (p. 197) refers to the Black Genesis Foundation, a women's organization.


Ethnic Genealogy: A Research Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Chapter 9 "Black American Records and Research"contains a thorough overview, with illustrations, of records useful for African-American genealogical research. Includes comprehensive bibliography of books, periodicals, and newspapers, plus listings of conferences and training programs, genealogical societies and organizations.

Everton, George B.
The Handy Book for Genealogists.... 7th ed. Logan, UT: Everton, 1981.
Supplies addresses of records repositories for all states of the Union plus bibliographic references to significant local history publications or collections for each state.


The Everyday Book. New York: Charles S. Francis, 1838.
Juvenile. Includes article entitled: "Origin of Negro Slavery" (pp. 153-155).

Ewell, John Louis.
The Story of Byfield, a New England Parish. Boston: George E. Littlefield, 1904.
Contains scattered references, by name, to African-Americans in Byfield.


The Excitement; Or, a Book to Induce Young Persons to Read, Containing Remarkable Appearances in Nature, Signal Preservations, and Such Incidents as Are Particularly Fitted to Arrest the Youthful Mind. Boston: Lilly, Wait, Colman, & Holden, 1833.
Juvenile. Includes article on Liberia (pp. 185-206).

Fairbanks, Edward Taylor.
The Town of St. Johnsbury, Vt.: A Review of One Hundred Twenty-Five Years to the Anniversary Pageant 1912. St. Johnsbury: Cowles, 1914.
Contains a brief sketch of Ruth Farrow, an African-American servant in the Arnold household, and a poem entitled "The Pioneer and the Slave" (pp. 61-62).


The Family and School Magazine, In Two Parts. Vol. 1 (June 1831-January 1832). New York: J. W. Seymour, 1832.
Juvenile. Includes notices of the Nat Turner slave rebellion (pp. 95, 248); importation of slaves (p. 249).

Farrar, Eliza.
The Adventures of Congo in Search of His Master. Boston: Munroe & Francis, 1846.
Juvenile. First published in England about 1815, tells the story of an African- American indentured servant, Congo, and his master, a Philadelphia merchant, formerly a Virginia slave-owning planter.

Feinstein, Estelle F., and Joyce S. Pendry.
Stamford: An Illustrated History. Woodland Hills, CA: Windsor Publications, 1984.
Contains several brief references to slavery and a short discussion of urban changes and their effect on the African-American community during the 1960's and 70's (Chapter IX).

Felt, Joseph Barlow.
Annals of Salem. 2 vols. 2nd ed. Salem: Ives, 1845-49.
Volume 2 contains several references to slavery, including a discussion of the slave trade (pp. 288-292) and a brief history of slavery in Salem (pp. 414-420).

Ferris, William Henry.
The African Abroad, or His Evolution in Western Civilization, Tracing His Development Under Caucasian Milieu. Vol. 1. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1913.
Thoroughgoing study by an African-American scholar of the evolving place of African-Americans in white society in America and Europe from historical and sociological points of view.

Fisk, Willbur.
Substance of an Address Delivered Before the Middletown Colonization Society, at their Annual Meeting, July 4, 1835. Middletown: The Society, 1835.
States that Colonization has done much more for free African-Americans than abolitionism.

Fitzgerald, W. P. N.
A Scriptural View of Slavery and Abolition. New Haven: [s. n.], 1839.
An appeal to the Old Testament and the epistles of Paul to discredit the agitation of radical abolitionists and to justify slavery by an appeal to religion. Library has a second edition, also published in 1839.

Flick, Alexander Clarence, ed.
History of the State of New York. 10 vols. New York: Columbia University Press, 1933.
Entries for African-Americans, slaves, etc. are found in Volumes I-IV, VI, VII, IX, and X.

Foner, Philip S.
Blacks in the American Revolution. Contributions in American History, 55. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, [n. d.].
Appendix reprints three sources: "The Appendix: or, Some Observations on the Expediency of the Petition of the Africans Living in Boston ... " (Boston: E. Russell, 1773?); Frederick Douglass "Oration, Delivered in Corinthian Hall, Rochester, July 5th, 1852" (Rochester, N. Y.: Lee, Mann, 1852); and George H. Moore "Historical Notes on the Employment of Negroes in the American Army of the Revolution" (New York: C. T. Evans, 1862). Includes bibliography.

Foner, Philip S., and Josephine F. Pacheco.
Three Who Dared: Prudence Crandall, Margaret Douglass, Myrtilla Miner— Champions of Antebellum Black Education. Contributions to Women's Studies, 47. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Attempts of three white women to conduct schools for free African-Americans in pre-Civil War America.

Foote, Andrew Hull.
The American Squadron; Ashburton Treaty; Consular Sea Letters: Reviewed in an Address by Commander A. H. Foote, U. S. N. Philadelphia: William F. Geddes, Printer, [n. d.].
Relationship of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty to the control of the African slave trade and the participation of vessels therein.

Ford, Emily Ellsworth (Fowler), ed.
Notes On the Life of Noah Webster. New York: Privately printed, 1912.
The appendix in volume 2 contains information on Webster as an abolitionist and also gives a list of the members of the early (1791) "Connecticut Society for the Promotion of Freedom & etc."


A Forensic Dispute on The Legality of Enslaving the Africans, Held At the Public Commencement in Cambridge, New-England, July 21st, 1773, By Two Candidates For the Bachelor's Degree. Boston: Thomas Leverett, 1773.
Theodore Parsons and Eliphalet Pearson discuss the philosophical and moral arguments for and against human slavery, and whether the effect of slavery is harmful or beneficial to the African.

Foster, Lafayette Sabine.
Admission of Kansas: Speech of Hon. L. F. S. Foster, of Connecticut, in the Senate of the United States, June 25, 1856. Washington, D.C.: Buell & Blanchard, 1856.
Admits right of slavery to exist in states where it is already established, but denies its right to expand into the territories or any new state.

Foster, Lafayette Sabine.
Speech of Hon. L. F. S. Foster, of Connecticut, on the Lecompton Constitution; Delivered in the Senate of the United States, March 8 and 19, 1858. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Congressional Globe, 1858.
Opposed admission of Kansas under Lecompton Constitution because of its provision for slavery, the ambiguous position of free African-Americans under it, and because it lacked the support of a majority of Kansas settlers.

Franklin, Josephine.
The Martin and Nelly Stories: Nelly's First Schooldays. Boston: Frederick A. Brown, 1862.
Juvenile. Nellie lives in a household where there is an African-American servant named Comfort, who figures prominently in one of the stories.


Free Men: The Amistad Revolt and the American Anti-slavery Movement. New Haven: New Haven Colony Historical Society; Hartford: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1989.
Broadside. Poster advertising exhibit of historical materials relating to the Amistad Revolt, subsequent litigation, and fate of the Mendi Africans.

Free Soil Party. Connecticut. State Central Committee.
Dear Sir: Let me call your attention to the importance of securing, if possible, the return of a sufficient number of Free Soil Party members, to hold the balance of power in each House of the General Assembly ... Hartford: The Party, 1850.
Broadside. Campaign circular.

Freedmen's & Refugees' Home Agency.
Circular. [Farmington: The Agency, 1866?]
Broadside. Appeal for support in founding an agency to cooperate with the Freedmen's Bureau to provide homeless freedmen with houses and employment.

French, H. W.
Art and Artists in Connecticut. New York: Kennedy Graphics, 1970.
Facsimile edtion of this book, the first edition of which (also in the Library), was published in 1871. Includes brief biography of African-American artist Nelson A. Primus (p. 155).

French, John Homer.
Gazetteer of the State of New York: Embracing a Comprehensive View of the Geography, Geology, and General History of the State, and a Complete History and Description of Every County, City, Town, Village, and Locality. Syracuse, NY: R. P. Smith, 1860.
Statistical table includes breakdown by race of county populations (p. 150).

Friedman, Lawrence J.
"Racism and Sexism in Ante-bellum America: The Prudence Crandall Episode Reconsidered." Societas: A Review of Social History. 4, (Summer 1974): 211-221.
A critical study of the Prudence Crandall episode within the social context of the period, with particular emphasis on Garrisonian abolitionist theory.

Fuller, Edmund.
Prudence Crandall, an Incident of Racism in Nineteenth-Century Connecticut. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1971.
In telling the story of Prudence Crandall and her school for "misses of color" in Canterbury, CT, Fuller concentrates on the larger forces brought into play in the controversy _ constitutional questions, abolition, how the free African- American was to be regarded. He spotlights the force of racism.

Gardner, Robert G.
Baptists of Early America: A Statistical History, 1639-1790. Atlanta: Georgia Baptist Historical Society, 1983.
Includes discussion of African-American Baptist churches and African-American members of Baptist churches, 1652-1773 (pp. 39-44).

Garrison, Wendell Phillips.
William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879: The Story of His Life. 2 vols. New York: Century, 1885.
Biography of William Lloyd Garrison up to 1840, making extensive use of correspondence and other contemporary accounts; the book thoroughly documents the abolition movement and its battles.


Geer's Hartford City Directory. Hartford: Elihu Geer.
Directories from 1843 through 1867/8 have a separate listing for "Colored Persons."

Gilbert, Kate.
The Middletown Book. Middletown, CT: Greater Middletown Preservation Trust, 1980.
Children's activity book based on the history of Middletown. Mentions the Bemans of Middletown, an African-American abolitionist family (p. 61).


The Gilead Chicken-Pie Supper Will Be Held Wednesday Evening, Oct. 26, '04, at the House of H. E. Buell. [s.l.: s.n.], 1904.
Broadside. Advertisement for a public supper at Hebron, CT, including vignette of strolling African-American minstrels, and a four stanza poem.

Gillespie, C. Bancroft, comp.
An Historic Record and Pictorial Description of the Town of Meriden, Connecticut and the Men Who Have Made It, From Earliest Settlement to Close of Its First Century of Incorporation: A Century of Meriden, "The Silver City," Issued as the Official Souvenir History by Authority of the General Committee at the Centennial Celebration, June 10 to 16, 1806. Meriden: Journal Publishing, 1906.
Section on African-American slavery includes some vital records, personal sketches and anecdotes pertaining to African-Americans in the early history of Meriden (Part I, pp. 244-253).

Gillette, Francis.
National Slavery and National Responsibility: Speech of Hon. Francis Gillette, of Connecticut, in the Senate of the United States, February 23d, 1855. Washington, D.C.: Buell & Blanchard, 1855.
Slavery, and therefore the fugitive slave laws, are a moral and civil evil, unsanctioned by history or the Constitution: "We look in vain for any power therein given to Congress to chattelize a part of the people, and throw them, despoiled and helpless, into the hands of another class, to be used as property."

Gillette, Francis.
A Review of the Rev. Horace Bushnell's Discourse of the Slavery Question, Delivered in the North Church, Hartford, January 10, 1839. Hartford: S. S. Cowles, 1839.
Condemns Bushnell's Discourse for being antislavery but not aggressively abolitionist. Calls for an aggressive stance in opposing and destroying the institution of slavery.

Gold, Theodore Sedgwick, ed.
Historical Records of the Town of Cornwall, Litchfield County, Connecticut. 2nd ed. Hartford: Case, Lockwood & Brainard, 1904.
Brief listing of slaves from town records and a few recalled from memory (pp. 367-368).

Goodell, John.
The Triumph of Moralism in New England Piety: A Study of Lyman Beecher. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1976.
More a critical study of the thought of the Beechers than a biography, this book emphasizes the view held by Harriet and Henry Ward that the immorality of slavery was seen most fundamentally in the actual institution of slavery itself.

Goodrich, John Z.
Nebraska and Kansas: Speech of Hon. John Z. Goodrich, of Mass., Delivered in the House of Representatives, May 20, 1854. Washington: Office of the Congressional Globe, 1854.
Political argument opposing the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and its implied repeal of the Missouri Compromise, by which the expansion of slavery into the territories was limited.

Goodwin, Joseph Olcott.
East Hartford: Its History and Traditions. Hartford: Case, Lockwood & Brainard, 1879.
Brief discussion of slaves owned by East Hartford residents (pp. 234-236), plus two references to Pomp Equality, an African-American who owned a boat as well as some real estate (pp. 179, 224).

Gordon, Patrick.
Geography Anatomiz'd; Or, The Geographical Grammar, Being a Short and Exact Analysis on the Whole Body of Modern Geography, After a New and Curious Method.... Collected From the Best Authors, and Illustrated with Divers Maps. London: J. J. & P. Knapton, D. Midwinter, 1722.
The entries for Africa in this geography are much given to a description of rarities and to the notion that most of its native peoples are not to be trusted.

Goulding, Francis Robert.
The Young Marooners on the Florida Coast; Or, Robert and Harold. New and enlarged ed. Philadelphia: Claxton, Remsen, & Haffelfinger, 1872.
Juvenile. First published in 1852, this oft-reprinted boys' adventure book set in late antebellum Florida includes a number of stock African-American characters.


Graham's Genuine Southern Specialty Company. [s. l. : s. n., n. d.]
Four page advertising program for African-American minstrel show, to be performed in Danielson, CT; not dated, but probably early 20th century.

Granger, Arthur.
The Apostle Paul's Opinion of Slavery and Emancipation: A Sermon Preached to the Congregational Church and Society in Meriden, at the Request of Several Respectable Anti-Abolitionists. Middletown: Charles H. Pelton, 1837.
States that whereas slavery as described in the ancient civilizations and countenanced in the Bible is radically different from American slavery, an appeal to Scripture cannot be used to justify to American slavery. Calls for an early end to American slavery.

Grant, Ellsworth Strong.
The City of Hartford, 1784-1984: An Illustrated History. Hartford: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1986.
Has several references to African-American churches, personages, and organizations in Hartford.

Grant, Ellsworth Strong and Marion Hepburn Grant.
In and About Hartford: Its People and Places. 5th ed. Hartford: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1989.
Contains similar information as 1978 edition by Marion Hepburn Grant.

Grant, Ellsworth Strong and Marion Hepburn Grant.
Passbook to a Proud Past and a Promising Future. Hartford: Society for Savings, 1969.
Section entitled "Strangers in a New Land" touches on the African-American community in Hartford.

Grant, Marion Hepburn.
In and About Hartford: Tours and Tales. Hartford: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1978.
Entries under "Tour Eight" include histories of several African-American churches and organizations (pp. 211-223).

Green, Beriah.
Four Sermons, Preached in the Chapel of the Western Reserve College ... November ... and December ... 1832. Cleveland, OH: Office of the Herald, 1833.
Religious response to the assertion of the Colonizationists that there is a natural prejudice against African-Americans, and that they are best returned to Africa. Asserts this prejudice is not Christian.

Green, Beriah.
Iniquity and a Meeting: A Discourse, Delivered in the Congregational Church, Whitesboro, Lord's Day, January 31, 1841. Whitesboro: Oneida Institute, 1841.
States that the good effects of revivals are vitiated if the convert is not stirred to espouse the cause of justice and equality for all, with particular reference to slavery and the African-American person.

Green, Mason Arnold.
Springfield, 1636-1886: History of Town and City, Including an Account of the Quarter-millenial Celebration ... May 25 and 26, 1886. Springfield, MA: Nichols, 1888.
Scattered references to slavery and slaves; viz., Tom, Pompey, Jenny and Jack.

Green, Samuel Abbott.
Groton Historical Series: A Collection of Papers Relating to the History of the Town of Groton, Massachusetts. 4 vols. Groton, Mass. 1887-99.
Contains an article called "Slavery in Groton" that mentions William Banks, Primus Lew, and a number of other slaves held in Groton during the 18th century (1:18-21).

Greenberg, Polly.
Oh, Lord, I Wish I Was a Buzzard. New York: Macmillan, 1968.
Juvenile. Little African-American girl, picking cotton in a hot field with her father, as a way of escaping the drudgery of her labor fantasizes that she is several of the animals she sees during the day.

Greer, Georgeanna H.
American Stonewares: The Art And Craft of Utilitarian Potters. Exton, PA: Schiffer, [n.d.].
Illustrates late 19th-century Ohio stoneware jug made in the shape of grotesque African-American head (p. 196).

Gregory, Caspar R.
A Sermon Preached before the United Congregations of Oneida, by Caspar R. Gregory, Pastor of Presbyterian Church, Nov. 24, 1859. Oneida: Office of the Oneida Sachem, 1859.
Opposes the ugly ulcer of slavery, but cautions moderation in dealing with it, lest in destroying slavery, the Republic be also destroyed.

Griffin, Sarah Lawrence.
The Southern Third Class Book: A Selection of Easy Lessons, Intended For the Younger Class in the Schools of the Southern and Western States. New York: Pratt, Woodward, Farmer & Brace, 1854.
Juvenile. Includes two stories, "The Little Negroes" and "The Return", depicting an idealized plantation existance, dispensing provisions to the slaves, the expectation of their gratitude, etc. (pp. 24-28).

Griggs, Susan Jewett.
Early Homesteads of Pomfret and Hampton. [s. l.: s. n.], 1950.
"Rev. Samuel Mosley's Pastorate" contains several anecdotes about Cuff and Hannah, Rev. Mr. Mosley's slaves (pp. 21-23).

Grimes, William.
Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave. New York: [s. n.], 1825.
Slave narrative. Grimes' account of his life from his childhood and early adulthood in the South to his escape to New England, settlement in Litchfield, and his purchase of freedom when about forty years old.

Grimes, William.
Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave, Brought Down to the Present Time. New Haven: The Author, 1855.
First published in 1825, describes his life as a slave, his escape, and subsequent life in Litchfield. This edition includes a ten-page "Conclusion" with a brief sketch of his life since 1825, living in New Haven and working as a barber and broker.

Gross, Robert A.
The Minutemen and Their World. New York: Hill & Wang, 1976.
Contains a discussion of slavery and the story of John Jack, an African native sold into slavery, who eventually bought his own freedom (pp. 94-98). His tombstone bears an antislavery inscription, composed by Daniel Bliss. Mentions African-Americans who gained their freedom by enlisting for service in the Revolutionary War (pp. 151-152); contains stories about Thomas Dugan, Cato, and Brister Freeman (pp. 185-188).

Grosvenor, D. A.
The Laws of Ohio Respecting Colored People, Shown to be Unjust, Impolitic and Disgraceful: A Discourse Delivered on Thanksgiving Day, by Rev. D. A. Grosvenor, Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in Elyria, Nov. 20, 1845. Hudson, OH: Office of the Ohio Observer, 1845.
Detailed examination on legal, moral, and sociological grounds.

Guild, Caroline Snowden Whitmarsh.
Nobody's Child and Other Stories. Boston: Walker, Wise, 1861.
Juvenile. Includes story entitled "Colored Preacher's Illustration," by which an African-American preacher proves that African-Americans and whites are equal in the sight of God (pp. 57-58).

Gulliver, J. P.
The Lioness and Her Whelps: A Sermon on Slavery Preached in the Broadway Congregational Church, Norwich, Connecticut, December 18, 1859. Norwich: Manning, Perry, 1860.
Condemns slavery, but more from perspective of its evil effects on the slaverholder and the commonwealth, than on its evil consequences for African- American people themselves.

Gunter, Marc.
Basepaths: From the Minor Leagues to the Majors and Beyond. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, [n.d.].
Includes chapters on "Oil Can" Boyd of the Bristol Red Sox, Ferguson Jenkins of the Chicago Cubs, and Bill White, a sports announcer.

Haley, Alex.
Roots. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976.
Recapturing the history of his family by tracing his ancestry to Gambia through oral history and painstaking research, Alex Haley in the historical novel Roots also chronicles the story of slavery in the U.S.

Hall, Basil.
Travels in North America in the Years 1827 and 1828. 3 vols. London: Simpkin & Marshall, 1829.
Vol. 3 includes descriptions of slavery and of a slave sale in Washington, DC, slavery in Charlestown, SC, and elsewhere in the South.

Hallan, Robert A.
The Dignity of Goodness: A Discourse, Delivered at the Funeral of Mr. Ichabod Pease, (a Man of Color,) in St. James' Church, New-London, March 5th, 1842. New London: Bolles & Williams, 1842.
Born a slave in 1755 at Fisher's Island, SC, he was a servant of a loyalist in the Revolution; subsequently gained his freedom and worked for Jedediah Huntington. Brief sketch of his life in an appendix (pp. 15-16).

Hammon, Jupiter.
America's First Negro Poet: The Complete Works of Jupiter Hammon of Long Island. Ed. Stanley Austin Ransom, Jr. Empire State Historical Publications Series, 82. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1970.
Biographical and critical material related to the life and work of Jupiter Hammon, with full texts of all extant prose and poetry. Includes a bibliography of Hammon's works.

Hammon, Jupiter.
Jupiter Hammon, American Negro Poet: Selections from His Writings and a Bibliography. Ed. Oscar Wegelin. Heartman's Historical Series, No. 13. New York: Heartman, 1915.
Includes a brief biography of Hammon, a report of a visit to his home, comments on his poetry and views on slavery. Facsimile and full text of "An Evening Thought" and full text of other poems.

Hanson, Willis T., Jr.
A History of Schenectady During the Revolution, to Which Is Appended a Contribution to the Individual Records of the Inhabitants of the Schenectady District During the Period. [s. l.]: Privately Printed, 1916.
Quotes a town resolution for an African-American curfew during the Revolution (p. 67).

Hart, Albert Bushnell, ed.
American History Told by Contemporaries: Era of Colonization, 1492-1689. vol. 1. New York: Macmillan, 1898.
Chapter 16, "Slavery and Servitude," includes material on slavery in the colonial period.

Hart, Albert Bushnell, ed.
Commonwealth History of Massachusetts; Colony, Province and State. 5 vols. New York: States History Company, 1927-30.
Numerous references throughout the five volumes to antislavery, African- Americans, slaves, slavery and the slave trade.

Hartford (CT). Mayor (1984: Milner).
Proclamation. 29 April 1984.
Broadside, signed and sealed. Proclaims 29 April 1984 Black Women of Connecticut Day in the City of Hartford.

Hartford Auxiliary Colonization Society.
Circular. Hartford: The Society, 1819.
Solicits funds; states the "absurdity of the opinion that difference of skin is attended with difference of natural capacity."

Hartford. Fourth Congregational Church.
The Unanimous Remonstrance of the Fourth Congregational Church, Hartford, Conn., Against the Policy of the American Tract Society on the Subject of Slavery. Hartford: Silas Andrus & Son, 1855.
Criticism of the American Tract Society for its weak stance on the antislavery movement.

Hartford Kansas Aid Association.
An Appeal for Kansas. Hartford: The Assn., [185-].
Broadside. Urges citizens to contribute money and influence to preserve the Kansas territory from "the fatal embrace of slavery."

Harwood, Pliny LeRoy.
History of Eastern Connecticut, Embracing the Counties of Tolland, Windham, Middlesex and New London. 3 vols. Chicago & New Haven: Pioneer Historical Publishing, 1931-32.
Volume 1 has a chapter on slavery.

Hatch, Louis Clinton, ed.
Maine: A History; A Facismile of the 1919 Edition. Ed. Louis Clinton Hatch. Somersorth, NH: New Hampshire Publishing, 1974.
General history of Maine from the Colonial period to the end of the 19th century. Contains a discussion of Maine's attitudes towards and reactions to the abolitionist movement from approximately 1825-1850 (pp. 285-296).

Haven, Alice B.
A Place for Every Thing, and Every Thing in its Place. New York: D. Appleton, 1864.
Juvenile. Clara Sherman's life on a Kentucky plantation includes numerous incidents involving African-American servants.

Hayner, Rutherford.
Troy and Rensselaer County, New York: A History. 3 vols. New York & Chicago: Lewis Historical Publishing, 1925.
Briefly discusses African-American education in Troy, specifically mentioning the school named for William Rich, an African-American prominent in Troy after the Civil War.

Haynes, Lemuel.
Divine Decrees, An Encouragement to the Use of Means: A Sermon Delivered at Granville, (N. Y.) June 25th, A. D. 1805, Before the Evangelical Society, Instituted For the Purpose of Aiding Pious and Needy Young Men in Acquiring Education for the Work of the Gospel Ministry. Rutland, VT.: The Herald Office, [n. d.].
Sermon by Connecticut-born African-American preacher serving a Congregational church in Rutland, VT.

Haynes, Lemuel.
Mystery Developed; Or, Russell Colvin, (supposed To Be Murdered,) in Full life, and Stephen and Jesse Boorn, (his Convicted Murderers,) Rescued from Ingominious Death by Wonderful Discoveries. Hartford: William S. Marsh, 1820.
Connecticut-born African-American preacher describes a cause celebre in Manchester, VT. Includes, as well, his sermon occasioned by the release of the Boorns. Library also has second edition (also 1820).

Haynes, Lemuel.
Universal Salvation, a Very Ancient Doctrine, with Some Account of the Life and Character of Its Author: A Sermon, Delivered at Rutland, West Parish, in the Year 1805. New Haven: Oliver Steele, 1806.
Library also has the following editions: New-London: Green, 1809; New-York: Davis, 1810 (7th); Boston: Williams, 1814 (9th); Boston: Lincoln & Edmands, 1821 (10th); no imprint (15th); no imprint (no publication data). In this oft-reprinted sermon by an African-American preacher who served churches in Torrington, CT, and Rutland, VT, orthodoxy is defended against the universalism of Hosea Ballou.

Hayward, John.
Gazetteer of the United States of America; Comprising a Concise General View of the United States...Also, Its Mineral Springs, Waterfalls, Caves, Beaches, and Other Fashionable Resorts; To which Are Added Valuable Statistical Tables, and a Map of the United States. Hartford: Case, Tiffany, 1853.
Gazetteer. The histories and descriptions of the states and territories include comments about slavery and information on the size of the slave populations and slave rights. Census information on the numbers of whites, African-Americans, and slaves, 1790-1850, is also provided.

Hayward, Silvanus.
History of the Town of Gilsum, New Hampshire, from 1752 to 1879. Manchester, NH: The Author, 1881.
Includes an account of the Gilsum Anti-Slavery Society and excerpts from some of the Society's documents (pp. 88-90).

Heartman, Charles Frederick.
Phillis Wheatley (Phillis Peters): A Critical Attempt and a Bibliography of Her Writings. New York: The Author, 1915.
Charles Heartman, a noted American bookdealer, put together this volume on the first African-American poet, Phillis Wheatly. Containing a biographical and critical essay, there are ten facsimiles of her works and a bibliography of her writings and of writings about her.

Hempstead, Joshua.
Diary of Joshua Hempstead of New London, Connecticut, Covering a Period of Forty-Seven Years from September, 1711, to November, 1758, Containing Valuable Genealogical Data Relating to Many New London Families, References to the Colonial Wars, to the Shipping and Other Matters of Interest Pertaining to the Town and the Times; With an Account of a Journey Made by the Writer from New London to Maryland. New London, 1901; rpt ed. New London: New London County Historical Society, 1970.
Entries have references to African-Americans and slaves, some named in index.


Here and There in Our Own Country, Embracing Sketches of Travel and Descriptions of Places, etc., etc. By Popular Writers. Philadephia: J. B. Lippincott, 1885.
Collection of essays, including Louise Seymor Houghton's "Paradise Plantation." Set in Florida, the secondary characters of Houghton's essay are "darkies."

Hibbard, Augustine George.
History of the Town of Goshen, Connecticut, with Genealogies and Biographies Based upon the Records of Deacon Lewis Mills Norton. Hartford: Case, Lockwood & Brainard, 1897.
Brief listing of slaves who lived in Goshen during the 18th century (pp. 172- 173, 293).

Hill, Everett Gleason.
A Modern History of New Haven and Eastern New Haven County. 2 vols. New York, Chicago: S. J. Clark, 1918.
Mentions the African-American Methodist Church of New Haven (p. 127) and briefly discusses the African-American population in New Haven ( p. 222).

Hillard, Isaac.
To the Public. [s.l.: s.n., 1797?]
Statement of his reasons for instituting prosecutions against those who had kidnapped and sold free African-Americans into slavery. Cites Connecticut General Assembly's act of 1788.

Hilton, Suzanne.
Who Do You Think You Are? Digging For Your Family Roots. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1976.
Contains a brief discussion of the slave origins of African-Americans and reasons for the difficulties encountered in African-American ancestral research (pp. 87-99).


Hingham: A Story of Its Early Settlement and Life, Its Ancient Landmarks, Its Historic Sites and Buildings. [s. l.]: Old Colony Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, 1911.
Contains a short essay, "The Negro Gallery," on the African-American gallery of the New North Church built in Hingham in 1806, and the changing attitude toward the place of African-Americans in Hingham society.

Historical Society of Temple, New Hampshire.
History of Temple, New Hampshire. [s. l.]: William L. Bauhan, 1976.
Contains a short sketch of Karl and Margaret Bigelow, residents of Temple, who became involved in the Afro-Anglo-America Program in Teacher Education (pp. 529- 532).


History of Greenfield. 4 vols. Greenfield, MA: [s. n.], 1904-1954.
Contains the story of 16-year-old Phillis and her methods of thwarting the advances of Jack, her 40-year-old prospective suitor (2:980-981). Library lacks vol. 4.


The History of Merrimack, New Hampshire, With Genealogies of Merrimack Families. Merrimack, NH: Merrimack Historical Society, 1976.
Notes that slavery was not widespread in the town due to the use of indentured servants. Also mentions Ceasar (Ceaser) Barnes, an African-American, who served in the Revolutionary War and later moved to Washington, NH.


History of Washington County, New York; Some Chapters in the History of the Town of Easton, N. Y. [s. l.]: Washington County Historical Society, 1959.
Has a section on slavery in Easton (pp. 107-112).

Hobart, Benjamin.
History of the Town of Abington, Plymouth County, Massachusetts, From Its First Settlement. Boston: T. H. Carter & Son, 1866.
Deals with slaves and their owners in Abington (pp. 251-258). Though basically anecdotal, there are some author's comments concerning the effect of mixed blood on the longevity of the descendants and the correlation between the emancipation of slaves and the degree of competition in the workforce.

Holland, Janice.
The Story of Charleston, South Carolina: Pirates, Planters and Patriots. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1955.
Juvenile. Depicts African-Americans as plantation slaves working on indigo and rice plantations.

Holmes, James.
"Dr. Bullie's" Notes: Reminiscences of Early Georgia and of Philadelphia and New Haven in the 1800s. Ed. Delma Eugene Presley. Atlanta: Cherokee Publishing, 1976.
Sketches of ante-bellum life on the Georgia coast put a genial face on the plantation/slave culture there. Instances of mob justice and the violence that were part of that culture seem quite sane and reasonable in Dr. Holmes' retelling. Fanny Burney is also subject to a mild refutation by the doctor.

Hooker, Isabella (Beecher).
A Brief Sketch of the Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe. [s.l.: s.n., between 1896 and 1907].
A very brief biography of Harriet Beecher Stowe, which shows that antislavery sentiment emerged very early in Mrs. Stowe's life. Of special interest, however, is an illustration of the "Uncle Tom's Cabin" souvenir tea spoon by Rogers Manufacturing Co., Hartford, and advertising copy for the same.

Howe, George.
Mount Hope: A New England Chronical. New York: Viking, 1959.
Contains a colorful, four-part discussion of the D'Wolf family and its involvement in the slave trade of Bristol, RI (pp. 97-133).

Howe, Mark Antony De Wolfe.
Bristol, Rhode Island: A Town Biography. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1930.
Contains a critical account of James D'Wolf and the Bristol slave trade (pp. 62- 88).

Howitt, Mary.
Our Cousins in Ohio. New York: Collins, 1849.
Juvenile. Includes sketch of an African-American servant, Adele, who had been a slave in Georgia and had escaped to Ohio with her little son.

Hoyt, Joseph Bixby.
The Connecticut Story. Ed. Elliott H. Kone. New Haven: Readers Press, 1961.
Has a chapter on slavery.

Hudson, Alfred Sereno.
The History of Sudbury, Massachusetts. 1638-1889. [s. l.]: Town of Sudbury, 1889.
Very brief listing of slaves mentioned in Sudbury documents.

Hughes, Arthur H.
Connecticut Place Names. Hartford: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1976.
Contains references to place names incorporating the terms "negro" and "nigger."

Huntington, E. B.
History of Stamford, Connecticut, from Its Settlement in 1641 to the Present Time, Including Darien, which Was One of Its Parishes Until 1820. Stamford: The Author, 1868.
Cites records of two slaves in Stamford (p. 456).

Huntington, Nathaniel G.
[Common School Atlas Drawn and Engraved on Steel to Illustrate and Accompany the Introduction to Modern Geography.... Hartford: Reed & Barber, 1837.]
This atlas contains a map of Africa that reflects the ignorance of the times about the details of the interior of that continent. Lacks title page.

Huntoon, Daniel Thomas Vose.
History of the Town of Canton, Norfolk County, Massachusetts. Cambridge, Mass.: John Wilson, 1893.
Mentions slave owners in Canton, and the value of a slave reflected in a bill of sale (pp. 242-243). Contains a sketch of William Royall's rather bizarre relationship with his slaves (pp. 503-504).

Hutchinson, Thomas.
History of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, 1628-1750. 3 vols. Boston: Thomas & John Fleet, 1764 & 1767.
Contains a transcript of the testimony of Candy, an African-American "witch" (pp. 33-34).


Hymns and Songs For the Friends of Freedom. Middletown: Pelton, 1842.
Collection of antislavery hymn-poems, together with names of tunes to which they were to be sung.

Meltzer, Milton (Ed.)
In Their Own Words: A History of the American Negro, 1619-1865. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1964.
Brief excerpts, with commentaries, from original sources, illustrating highlights of African-American history in America.


Inconsistency of the "War Christians." [Liverpool, Eng.: s. n., 1863.]
Broadside. Attacks Beecher's acceptance of violence as means of ending slavery.


Injured Humanity; Being a Representation of What the Unhappy Children of Africa Endure from those Who Call Themselves Christians. [s. l.]: Samuel Wood, 18—.
Broadside. Describes the life of an African-American slave; includes seven woodcut vignettes of branding and punishing slaves.

Ives, Charles.
Isles of Summer; or Nassau and the Bahamas. New Haven: The Author, 1880.
This travel book offers views of the African-American population of Nassau and the Bahamas and records the lyrics of a number of sacred songs sung by them.

J. & E. Stevens Co., Cromwell, CT.
Export Catalogue of Pistols for Harmless Paper Caps, Toy Banks, Etc., Etc. Middletown: The Stewart Printing Co., [n. d.].
Offers Cabin, Jolly Nigger, Bad Accident and Kicking Mule banks, all including one or more African-American mechanical figures. The Kicking Mule bank involves a mechanical mule which kicks over an African-American boy as the coin is deposited. Library has Nos. 49-51.

J. & E. Stevens Co., Cromwell, CT.
Illustrated Catalogue of Iron Toys, Etc. Manufactured by The J. & E. Stevens Co., Cromwell, Conn. Middletown: J. S. Stewart, [n. d.].
The various editions offer a Bad Accident Bank, a Base Ball Bank, a Cabin Bank, a Kicking Mule Bank, a Jolly Nigger Bank, and a wheel-toy with African-American jockey driving a mule, all of which include one or more mechanical African- American figures. Library has several editions. @PAGE BREAK = @FIGURES = Item #408

Jackson, Francis.
History of the Early Settlement of Newton, County of Middlesex, Massachusetts, From 1639 to 1800. Boston: Stacy & Richardson, 1854.
Contains an overview of slavery in Massachusetts with listing of some of the slaves and slave owners in Newton. Included in the discussion are excerpts from the letters of Judge Tucker of Virginia and Rev. Dr. Belknap of Boston regarding the introduction and abolition of slavery in Massachusetts.

Jackson, James Robert.
History of Littleton, New Hampshire. 3 vols. Cambridge: The Town, 1905.
Covers the town's antislavery movement from 1840 to 1860 (1:362-286).

Jackson, Robert B.
Earl the Pearl: The Story of Earl Monroe. New York: Henry Z. Walck, 1969.
Juvenile. Young people's biography of a famous African-American basketball player.

James, Horace.
Our Duties to the Slave: A Sermon Preached Before the Original Congregational Church and Society in Wrentham, Mass., on Thanksgiving Day, November 28, 1846. Boston: Richardson & Filmer, 1847.
Appeals to his hearers to defend the slave from being defrauded of his labor; from cruel treatment; to grant the slaves justice by granting freedom and by securing jury trials for those accused of crimes or fleeing from servitude.

James, May Winsor Hall.
The Educational History of Old Lyme, Connecticut, 1635-1935. New Haven: New Haven Colony Historical Society, 1939.
Mentions slavery in Lyme, listing the emancipation dates of three of the town's slaves (p. 104).

James, Sydney V.
Colonial Rhode Island: A History. New York: Scribner, 1975.
Contains several short references to slavery and the slave trade in colonial Rhode Island.

Jameson, Ephraim Orcutt.
The History of Medway, Mass., 1713 to 1885. Medway: The Town, 1886.
Contains the manumission record of Ceasar Hunt, alias Peter Warren, "a mulatto slave."

Janick, Herbert F., Jr.
A Diverse People: Connecticut 1914 to the Present. Chester, CT: Pequot Press, 1975.
Examines issues of the African-American community from WWII to the 1970's (pp. 80-97).

Jennings, George Penfield.
Greens Farms, Connecticut, the Old West Parish of Fairfield ... Historical Sketches and Reminiscences. [Greens Farms, CT]: The Congregational Society of Green Farms, 1933.
Has a short chapter entitled "Negro Slaves" (pp. 58-60).

Jerninghan, Edward.
Yarico to Inkle: an Epistle. Hartford: [s. n.], 1792.
Popular poem about white man's betrayal of his African-American female savior, whom he sells into slavery.

Johnson, Arthur L.
Beyond Ourselves, Community Impact Index: A Perspective on Black Networking, Associational Relationships, and Community Agendas. [s. l.]: Printed by Lithographics, Inc., 1983.
Study of African-American involvement in community organizations in Hartford, CT.

Johnson, Clifton.
Historic Hampshire in the Connecticut Valley; Happenings in a Charming Old New England County, From the Time of the Dinosaur Down to About 1800. Springfield, MA: Milton Bradley, 1932.
Contains several references to slaves and slavery, runaways, and the Underground Railroad.

Johnson, Edward A.
A School History of the Negro Race in America From 1619 to 1890, with a Short Introduction as to the Origin of the Race; Also a Short Sketch of Liberia. Rev. ed. Chicago: W. B. Conkey, 1897.
Juvenile. Includes brief sketches of lives of numerous African-American citizens; groups and religious organizations described.

Johnson, Oliver.
William Lloyd Garrison and His Times; Or, Sketches of the Anti-slavery Movement in America, and of the Man Who Was Its Founder and Moral Leader. Boston: B. B. Russell, 1880.
Not strictly either a biography or a history, but an account of the moral agitation by William Lloyd Garrison and the growth of the abolition movement in America based on that agitation, written by a man who, for forty years, was Garrison's close associate.

Johnson, R. G.
An Historical Account of the First Settlement of Salem, in West Jersey, ... with Many of the Important Events that Have Occurred, Down to the Present Generation. Philadelphia: Orrin Rogers, 1839.
Contains abstracts of the trial of African-American slaves for the murder of James Sherron (pp. 107-109).

Johnson, William Michael.
On the Outside Looking In: Irish, Italian and Black Ethnic Politics in an American City. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1987.
PhD dissertation. A study of the influence of Irish, Italians, and African- Americans on New Haven politics; discussion of African-Americans extends from the New Haven Colony to the 1970's.

Jones, Electra Fideali.
Stockbridge, Past and Present; Or, Records of an Old Mission Station. Springfield, MA: Bowles, 1854.
Section on "African Population" includes biographical sketches of Elizabeth Freeman and Agrippa Hull, as well as brief mention of other African-Americans in Stockbridge.

Jones, Howard.
Mutiny on the Amistad: The Saga of a Slave Revolt and Its Impact on American Abolition, Law, and Diplomacy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Scholarly study of the Amistad "mutiny" and subsequent legal battles to secure the Africans' freedom.

Jorgenson, Chester E., comp.
Uncle Tom's Cabin as Book and Legend: A Guide to an Exhibition. Detroit, MI: [s. n.], 1952.
Fully annotated exhibition catalogue, including primary and secondary materials relating to Uncle Tom's Cabin and to the antislavery literature generally.

Judd, Sylvester.
History of Hadley, Including the Early History of Hatfield, South Hadley, Amherst and Granby, Massachusetts. Springfield, MA: H. R. Huntting, 1905.
Tells of the execution of Jack, an African-American, for burning the house of Lt. William Clark of Northampton in 1681; an interesting footnote attempts to explain why Jack's body was burned, citing incidents of cruelty used in punishing slaves (p. 261).

Child, D. L. (Mrs.)
The Juvenile Miscellany. Third series. Vol. 4. Boston: Allen & Ticknor, 1833.
Juvenile. Includes story, "The Little White Lamb and the Little Black Lamb" (p. 53-56), comparing white and African-American lambs in the same flock to white and African-American children who love each other.


Juvenile Poems, for the Use of Free American Children, of Every Complexion. Boston: Garrison & Knapp, 1835.
Juvenile. Edited by William Lloyd Garrison, a collection of poems intended to combat the "curse of prejudice and slavery."

Kalm, Pehr.
Travels into North America, Containing Its Natural History, and a Circumstantial Account of Its Plantations and Agriculture in General. Warrington: W. Eyres; London: T. Lowndes, 1770-1771.
Includes comments on African-Americans as slaves and discussion of African- Americans generally (1:390-400).

Kaplan, Sidney, and Emma Nogrady Kaplan.
The Black Presence in the Era of the American Revolution. Rev. ed. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1989.
Scholarly study, with numerous illustrations, bibliography, and index.

Keach, Horace A.
Burrillville: As It Was, and As It Is. Providence: Knowles, Anthony, 1856.
Discusses the Fugitive Slave Law of 1714 (pp. 91-94).

Keats, Ezra Jack.
John Henry: An American Legend. New York: Pantheon, 1965.
Juvenile. Colorful re-telling for children of the legend of John Henry who, with his hammers, out-performed a drilling machine.

Keats, Ezra Jack.
The Snowy Day. New York: Viking, 1962.
Juvenile. Young African-American boy's sense of wonder and discovery in a snowstorm.

Keleher, William A.
Maxwell Land Grant: A New Mexico Item. Santa Fe, NM: Rydall, 1942.
This history of the Maxwell land grant of New Mexico tells of the shooting of three African-American U.S. soldiers by a nephew of Davy Crockett on 21 May 1876.

Kessler, Leonard.
AquĦ Viene el Ponchado. New York: Harper & Row, 1969.
Juvenile. An African-American boy, Willie, coaches his white friend Bobby until he is able to successfully hit a baseball.

Kessler, Leonard.
Last One in Is a Rotten Egg. New York: Harper & Row, 1969.
Juvenile. Learning to swim at the city pool. Children interact in an inter- racial setting; African-American and white children depicted as friends.

Kidder, Frederic.
History of the Boston Massacre, March 5, 1770; Consisting of the Narrative of the Town, the Trial of the Soldiers: and a Historical Introduction, Containing Unpublished Documents of John Adams, and Explanatory Notes. Albany, NY: Joel Munsell, 1870.
Reprints Bowdoin's Short Narrative of the Horrid Massacre, together with the trial of the British soldiers.

Kidder, Frederic.
The History of New Ipswich, from Its First Grant in MDCCXXXVI, to the Present Time; With Genealogical Notices of the Principal Families, and Also the Proceedings of the Centennial Celebration, September 11, 1850. Boston: Gould & Lincoln, 1852.
Listing of slaves before 1776, when the town passed a resolution declaring them free; includes Ceasar, Scipio, Patience, Boston, and Grace. Slaveholders included the town's doctor, minister, and magistrate.

Kimball, John Calvin.
Connecticut's Canterbury Tale: Its Heroine Prudence Crandall, and Its Moral for To-day. Hartford: Plimpton, [n. d.].
Story of Prudence Crandall.

King, Mary Louise.
Portrait of New Canaan: The History of a Connecticut Town. New Canaan, CT: New Canaan Historical Society, 1981.
Scattered references to African-Americans in New Canaan, mentioning specifically the Jacklin family and Onesemus Comstock, the last slave in Connecticut.

Kingman, Bradford.
History of North Bridgewater, Plymouth County, Massachusetts, from Its First Settlement to the Present Time. Boston: The Author, 1866.
Contains a discussion of slavery in North Bridgewater, listing many names of slaves who lived in the area (pp. 317-318). One family in particular, descendents of James Easton, are delineated in the "Family Register" section of the book (pp. 497-498).

Kirkham, Edwin Bruce.
The Building of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Knoxville: University of Tennessee, 1977.
A critical study of the genesis of Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, the evolution of Mrs. Stowe's thought, and the production of the novel and its revisions. The appendix contains collations from holograph sheets to the first edition of the book, as well as a section on the use of African-American dialect.

Kirkpatrick, Doris.
The City and the River. [Fitchburg, MA]: Fitchburg Historical Society, 1971.
Contains an interesting discussion of Fitchburg and the Civil War era (pp. 259- 291). Examines antislavery activities and the Fitchburg citizens who upheld them; the Fitchburg emigrants to Kansas and their fate at the hands of pro- slavery guerillas; and Fitchburg's actual involvement in the Civil War.

Knapp, Lewis G.
In Pursuit of Paradise: History of the Town of Stratford, Connecticut. West Kennebunk, ME: Stratford Historical Society, c1989.
Short section on slavery includes an excerpt from the autobiography of Aunt Hagar Merriman and the preamble to the Constitution of the Stratford Anti- Slavery Society (pp. 117-119).

Kulp, George Brubaker.
Families of the Wyoming Valley, Biographical, Genealogical and Historical: Sketches of the Bench and Bar of Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. 3 vols. Wilkes- Barre, PA: E. B. Yordy, 1885-90.
The biographical sketches of Ebenezer Warren Sturdevant, James E. Burr, and George Washington Woodward include their attitudes toward the slavery issue (pp. 16-19; 991-992; 1152-1153).

Ladd, Everett Carll.
Ideology in America: Change and Response in a City, a Suburb, and a Small Town. New York: Norton, 1969.
Study of sociological changes in Hartford, Bloomfield, and Putnam, CT, during the 1960's.

Lafayette, Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roche Gilbert du Motier, marquis de. (Ed. Melvin D. Kennedy.)
Lafayette and Slavery: From His Letters to Thomas Clarkson and Granville Sharp. Easton: American Friends of Lafayette, 1950.
These letters from the Marquis de Lafayette to Thomas Clarkson and Granville Sharp, both antislavery agitators in Great Britain, reveal the uncompromising opposition of Lafayette to slavery, the slave trade, and the degredation of African-Americans. Kennedy's text provides a fairly complete overview of Lafayette's involvement in antislavery activity and of attempts at ending slavery and the slave trade in France.

LaFrancis, Edith Hull.
Agawam, Massachusetts: A Town History. Springfield, MA: Pond-Ekberg Co., 1980.
Contains general comments concerning slavery in New England, with interesting observations on specific African-American families in Agawam (pp. 87-90).

Lane, Andrew.
Slavery, Con and Pro: Or, A Sermon and Its Answer. Washington: Henry Polkinhorn, 1858.
Ms. note in the hand of Isaac Toucey, laid in, attributes this to one Andrew Lane of New Haven, CT. A Northerner's attempt to excuse slavery and refute the Biblical witness against it.

Larned, Ellen Douglas.
History of Windham County, Connecticut. 2 vols. Worcester, MA: The Author, 1874- 80.
Volume 2 includes a detailed discussion of Prudence Crandall's school for African-American girls and the furor in Canterbury resulting from its foundation (pp. 490-502).

La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de.
Voyage dans Les États-Unis D'Amerique, fait en 1795, 1796 et 1797. 8 vols. Paris: DuPont, Buisson & Pougens, 1799.
Includes discussion of Carolina legislation concerning importation of African- Americans (4:48-50).

Lasser, Carol S.
Mistress, Maid and Market: the Transformation of Domestic Service in New England, 1790-1870. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1982.
Includes chapter, "Black Service in Boston" (p. 201-237).

Lavall, Joseph.
The Negro Equalled by Few Europeans, Translated from the French: To Which Are Added Poems on Various Subjects, Moral and Entertaining; by Phillis Wheatley, Negro Servant to Mr. John Wheatley, of Boston, in New-England. 2 vols. Philadelphia: William W. Woodward, 1801.
Fictional account of slave trade, slavery, and of the superior sensibilities of African blacks, told by African-American protagonist. Includes historic notes. Library lacks vol. 2.


Law in Colonial Massachusetts, 1630-1800: A Conference Held 6 and 7 November 1981 by the Colonial Society of Massachusetts. Boston: The Society, 1984.
Has some interesting comments on African-Americans in Boston (p. xli, footnote 9); refers to some specific cases involving African-Americans (pp. 128-129).

Lawrence, James.
Binky Brothers and the Fearless Four. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.
Juvenile. Trouble erupts when a girl tries to join a boys' club, the Fearless Four. One of the four is African-American.

Lee, William Wallace.
Catalogue of Barkhamsted Men Who Served in the Various Wars, 1775 to 1865. Meriden, CT: Republican Publishing, 1897.
Contains a brief description of Humphrey Quamino, a mulatto (p. 32).

Le Fevre, Ralph.
History of New Paltz, New York, and Its Old Families (from 1678-1820), Including the Huguenot Pioneers and Others Who Settled in New Paltz Prior to the Revolution. 2nd ed. Albany, New York: [s. n., n. d.].
Includes a list of slaveholders in New Paltz (p. 93).

Leiding, Mrs. Harriette (Kershaw).
Historic Houses of South Carolina. Philadelphia & London: Lippincott, 1921.
Includes a brief mention of the vocational training of Southern slaves (p. 180) and a short discussion of the "negro quarter" found on most Southern plantations (p. 288).

Levermore, Charles H.
Republic of New Haven: A History of Municipal Evolution. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1886.
Several references to African-Americans, including a mention of the adoption by New Haven authorities of a resolution to resist the establishment of a college for African-Americans (pp. 253-254).

Lewis, Alonzo.
The History of Lynn. Boston: J. H. Eastburn, 1829.
Includes commentary on the immorality of slavery (pp. 11-13). The entries for the year 1783 (pp. 180-182) are brief ancedotes about the slaves of Lynn, especially Pompey and Hannibal. In the entry for 1828 (pp. 230-231) is the story of Flora, an African-American woman who died on Oct 1st at age 115, wife to five husbands and mother of ten children.

Lewis, Alonzo.
History of Lynn, Essex County, Massachusetts: Including Lynnfield, Saugus, Swampscott, and Nahant, 1629-1864. Lynn: C. C. Herbert, 1890.
Mentions the beginning of slavery in Lynn, including some of the early Massachusetts court rulings on slavery (pp. 178-179). In the entry for the year 1780 is the listing of slaves in Lynn at the time (compare The History of Lynn, 1829 ed.). In 1850, the Fugitive Slave Law was opposed by the citizens of Lynn, and the text of their opposition is reproduced (pp. 427-428).

Lexau, Joan M.
The Homework Caper. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.
Juvenile. Two boys, one African-American and one white, solve a mystery about missing homework papers.

Lexau, Joan M.
The Rooftop Mystery. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.
Juvenile. Two boys, one African-American and one white, become involved in a mystery involving a sister's missing doll.

Lincoln, Abraham.
The Republican Party Vindicated, The Demands of the South Explained: Speech of Hon. Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, at the Cooper Institute, New York City, February 27, 1860. [s. l.: s. n., n. d.].
States position of the Republican Party to resist expansion of slavery in the territories, but not to interfere with it where it currently legally exists.

Linder, Billy Royce.
How to Trace Your Family History. New York: Everest House, 1978.
Includes a very brief discussion of sources available for African-American genealogical research (pp. 105-108).

Litchfield, Norman.
History of the Town of Oxford, Connecticut. [s. l.: s. n.], 1960.
Has a short chapter on slaves in Oxford (pp. 42-43).

Little, William.
The History of Weare, New Hampshire, 1735-1888. Lowell: S. W. Huse, 1888.
Brief mentions of Weare's antislavery sentiment, including participation of two citizens in the "Underground Railroad" and the antislavery position of the Calvinist Baptists at East Weare (p. 398).

Livermore, Mary A.
My Story of the War: A Woman's Narrative of Four Years of Personal Experience as Nurse in the Union Army and in Relief Work at Home, in Hospitals, Camps, and at the Front, during the War of the Rebellion; with Anecdotes, Pathetic Incidents, and Thrilling Reminiscences Portraying the Lights and Shadows of Hospital Life and the Sanitary Service of the War. Hartford: A. D. Worthington, 1889.
Includes several sections dealing with life among, or work with, contrabands (i.e., slaves who fled within Union lines during the war).

Livermore, S. T.
A Condensed History of Cooperstown, with a Biographical Sketch of J. Fenimore Cooper. Albany: J. Munsell, 1862.
Includes advertisement for a slave from the Otsego Herald, 1799, and a mention of Thomas Bronk, a former slave (p. 171).

Lord, Charles C.
Life and Times in Hopkinton, NH. 3 vols. Concord: Republican Press, 1890.
Documents include will of John Jones bequeathing African-Americans James, Tom, and Bacchus to three of his sons, and a 1777 bill of sale to Joseph Barnard of a thirty-six year old African-American man named Seco. An anecdote concerning Joseph Barnard and a former slave named Seeko is found in chapter 69.

Lord, John C.
"The Higher Law," in Its Application to the Fugitive Slave Bill: A Sermon on the Duties Men Owe to God and to Governments; Delivered at the Central Presbyterian Church, Buffalo, on Thanksgiving-Day. New-York: Union Safety Committee, 1851.
"We take the ground, that the action of civil governments within their appropriate Jurisdiction is final and conclusive upon all citizens.... The right of revolution is a civil right.... It is not for the Church, as such, to determine when a just ground for revolution exists."

Love, William Deloss.
Obedience to Rulers,the Duty and its Limitations: A Discourse Delivered December 22d, 1850, on the Two Hundred and Thirtieth Anniversary of the Landing of the Pilgrims. New Haven: Storer & Stone, 1851.
Obedience to authority does not require those who believe slavery a moral wrong to assist in recovery of escaped slaves. A higher law governs.

Lovell, R. A., Jr.
Sandwich: A Cape Cod Town. [s. l.]: Town of Sandwich, Massachusetts, Sandwich Archives and Historical Center, 1984.
Mentions the slaves Harry, Stephen, Jesse, Black Jenny, Titus Winchester, Cathron, and Newport.

Lurie, Melvin and Elton Rayack.
"Racial Differences in Migration and Job Search: A Case Study." The Southern Economic Journal 33 (July 1966): 81-95.
Includes Connecticut.

Lyell, Sir Charles.
Travels in North America, With Geological Observations on the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia. 2 vols. London: J. Murray, 1845.
Vol. 1 includes observations on slavery and life of African-Americans, especially in the District of Columbia, Virginia, and South Carolina.

Lyons, James E.
"A Survey of Black Connecticut High School Graduates Attending Out-of State Colleges and Universities." The Journal of Negro Education 43 (Fall 1974): 506- 511.
Study based on survey of about sixty students.

MacCracken, Henry Noble.
Old Dutchess Forever! The Story of an American County. New York: Hastings House, 1956.
Contains a discussion of slavery in early Dutchess County, NY (pp. 122-129).

MacKie, Mary-Frances L.
Avon, Connecticut: an Historical Story. Canaan, NH: Avon Historical Society, 1988.
Brief references to abolitionism and slavery and short discussion of the Underground Railroad (pp. 130-131).

Maddex, Jack P., Jr.
The Reconstruction of Edward A. Pollard: A Rebel's Conversion to Postbellum Unionism. The James Sprunt Studies in History and Political Science, 54. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1974.
An intellectual biography of Pollard, who gave up proslavery for conservative Unionism. Pollard's conversion is seen as critical to interpreting social systems of the Old and New South.

Maher, Stephen J.
The Sister of a Certain Soldier. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1918.
The story of a young African-American woman of New Haven, CT, and of a song she sang for World War I soldiers.

Main, Jackson Turner.
Society and Economy in Colonial Connecticut. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985.
Chapter 5, "The Laborers," is a discussion of the laboring class in Colonial Connecticut, which the author divides into four groups: slaves, servants, free dependent men, and free independent men. Includes statistics on number and values of slaves.

Manchester, Irving Edward.
The History of Colebrook, by Irving E. Manchester, and Other Papers. Winsted, CT: The Citizen Printing company, 1935.
Mentions Rev. Edward Royal Tyler, an abolitionist dismissed from his ministry because of his antislavery sentiments (pp. 29-30).

Manning, Edward.
Six Months on a Slaver: A True Narrative. New York: Harper, 1879.
Manning thought he had signed on for a whaling voyage.

Mansfield Historical Society. Mansfield, CT. History Workshop.
Chronology of Mansfield, Connecticut, 1702-1972. Storrs, CT: Parousia Press, 1974.
Entries for 1743, 1784, 1790, 1793, and 1837 include brief references to slaves and slavery.

Manwaring, Charles William, comp.
A Digest of Early Connecticut Probate Records. 3 vols. Hartford: R. S. Peck, 1904-1906.
Indexes to names in Volumes II and III have scattered references to African- Americans listed in probate actions.

Mars, James.
Life of James Mars, a Slave Born and Sold in Connecticut. Hartford: Case Lockwood, 1864. 3rd ed. Hartford: Case Lockwood, 1866. 4th ed. Hartford: Case Lockwood, 1867. 6th ed. Hartford: Case Lockwood, 1868. 7th ed. Hartford: Case Lockwood, 1869. 8th ed. Hartford: Case Lockwood, 1869.
Slave narrative. Written by Mars at the time of the Civil War, when he was free, to document slavery in the North. Editions after the first contain a brief statement by John Todd introducing the author and an appendix giving additional facts about the author's life, written by the author.

Martin, B. Edmon.
"All We Want Is Make Us Free": La Amistad and the Reform Abolitionists. Lanham, NY: University Press of America, 1986.
Narration of the events in the case of the Mendi Africans, and an analysis of its effects on abolition thought.

Martzolff, Clement L.
History of Perry County, Ohio. New Lexington, OH: Ward & Weiland, 1902.
Brief discussion of the Underground Railroad in Perry County (pp. 135-136).

Marvin, Abijah Perkins.
History of the Town of Winchendon (Worcester County, Mass.,) From the Grant of Ipswich, Canada, in 1735, to the Present Time. Winchendon: The Author, 1868.
"The Slave Case" is a review of the lawsuit between Hatfield and Winchendon over the care of Edon London, an African-American man (pp. 276-279).

Mason, George Champlin.
Reminiscences of Newport. Newport, RI: Charles E. Hammett, Jr., 1884.
Contains a very brief sketch of Mintus, the "last colored undertaker," plus general comments on slaves and slavery in Newport (pp. 104-106).

Massachusetts (Colony). House of Representatives.
Journals of the House of Representatives of Massachusetts 1770-1771. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1978.
Volume 2 has several references to bills concerning nonimportation of slaves.

Masten, Arthur H.
The History of Cohoes, New York, from Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. Albany: Joel Munsell, 1877.
Sale of slave boy Ben to Garret Clute (p. 31).

Mathews, Albert.
Ohio and Her Western Reserve: With a Story of Three States Leading to the Latter, From Connecticut, By Way of Wyoming, Its Indian Wars and Massacre. New York: Appleton, 1902.
Includes discussion of the Ordinance of Freedom (or the Ordinance of 1787), which established Ohio as an antislavery state.

May, Caroline, ed.
The American Female Poets: With Biographical and Critical Notices. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blackson, 1859.
A collection of poetry written by American women from Anne Bradstreet through to the mid-19th century. Includes Phillis Wheatley and some antislavery verse. With brief biographical sketches.

May, Samuel Joseph.
Memoir of Samuel Joseph May. Boston: Roberts, 1873.
Memoirs of ardent antislavery reformer, champion of Prudence Crandall.

May, Samuel Joseph.
Some Recollections of Our Antislavery Conflict. Boston: Fields, Osgood, 1869.
Reminiscences of Unitarian clergyman active in abolition movement; includes section on Prudence Crandall and the Canterbury school (pp. 39-72).

Mayo, Amory Dwight.
The New Education in the New South. [s. l.: s. n., n. d.]
Includes comments on education among African-Americans, and notes readiness with which African-Americans respond to schooling.

Mazzei, Filippo.
Recherches historiques et politiques sur les états-unis de l'Amerique septentrionale. 4 vols. Colle & Paris: Froull?, 1788.
Includes a chapter on slavery and condition of African-Americans (4:127-140).

McCarron, Anna T.
"Trial of Prudence Crandall for the Crime of Educating Negroes in Connecticut." The Connecticut Magazine, 12 (1908): 225-232.
Overview of the Prudence Crandall story.

McGivern, James Gregory.
Pillars of Litchfield. Spokane, WA: [s. n.], 1971.
Has section on African-American slavery in Litchfield (pp. 47-50).

McIntosh, Charles Fleming.
Brief Abstract of Lower Norfolk County and Norfolk County Wills 1637-1710. [s. l.]: Colonial Dames of America in the State of Virginia, 1914.


McIntosh, Charles Fleming.
Brief Abstract of Norfolk County Wills 1637-1710. [s. l.]: Colonial Dames of America in the State of Virginia, 1922.
Many slaves named in both volumes of will extracts, but neither has an index of slave names.

M'Clellan, Samuel.
Ten Dollars Reward! Ran Away From the Subscriber, on the Night of the 15th Instant, a Negro Boy, Named Caesar, 18 years old. Woodstock, CT: S. M'Clellan, 1803.
Broadside. Reward handbill, dated 16 May 1803, describing the fugitive, and stating that he has been guilty of theft.

McLeod, Alexander.
Negro Slavery Unjustifiable: A Discourse by Alexander McLeod, A.M. New York: T. & J. Swords, 1802.
Equates slavery with man-stealing, as condemned in Scripture (Exodus 21:16). Preached in response to call to serve a Presbyterian Church in New York State, in which he knew there were slaveholders in the congregation.

McNulty, Marjorie Grant.
Glastonbury: From Settlement to Suburb. 2nd ed. Glastonbury, CT: Historical Society of Glastonbury, 1975.
Contains a brief history of slavery in Glastonbury, citing the manumission of Cuff Acklens (pp. 78-79). Also has a short discussion of "Project Concern," a school integration project of the 1970's (pp. 129-130).


Memories of Hartford. Hartford: Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Co., 1986.
Includes reminiscences by two African-American Hartford residents, one a native, and one who moved to Hartford from Georgia.


Merry's Museum, Parley's Magazine, Woodworth's Cabinet, and the Schoolfellow. Ed. Robert Merry, Hiram Hatchet, and Aunt Sue. Vol. 44. New York: J. N. Stearns, 1862.
Juvenile. Includes a story entitled "Deaf, Dumb, and Blind," describing institution for instruction of blind and deaf-mute African-American children (pp. 49-50).

Methodist Episcopal Church.
Minutes of the Methodist Conferences, Annually Held in America, 1773-1794, Inclusive. Philadelphia: H. Tuckniss and John Dickins, 1795.
Lists membership in the church, by Circuit, and is divided by African-Americans and whites.

Miller, Herbert C.
The History of North Branford and Northfield. North Branford, CT: Totoket Historical Society, 1982.
Brief mention of African-Americans who inhabited North Branford (pp. 14, 24-25).

Mills, Samuel John.
A View of Exertions Lately Made For the Purpose of Colonizing the Free People of Colour, in the United States, in Africa, or Elsewhere. Washington, D.C.: Jonathan Elliot, 1817.
Progress report on the initial efforts of the American Colonization Society by one of its founders. In 1818 Mills would go to Africa to explore and choose a site for establishing a colony for free African-Americans.

Mississippi.Governor (David Holmes).
Letter From His Excellency David Holmes, Governor of the State of Mississippi, Transmitting a Copy of the Constitution and Form of Government of the Said State December 4, 1817. Read, and Ordered to Lie Upon the Table. Washington, D.C.: E. De Kraft, 1817.
Includes text of constitution, which contains a clause regulating slaves (pp. 19-20).

Mitchell, Mary Hewitt.
History of the United Church of New Haven. New Haven: The United Church, 1942.
Has several references to slaves and slavery, including a brief discussion of the Amistad affair (pp. 96-99).

Monjo, F. N.
The Drinking Gourd. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.
Juvenile. Story of a white New England farm boy in pre-Civil War America, and how his father helps a runaway slave family along the Underground Railroad to Canada.

Moody, George Reed.
The South Worthington Parish. South Worthington, MA: [s. n.], 1899-1905.
Contains photograph (Plate XIII, opposite page 96) and vital statistics of Sarah A. Billings, an African-American woman and member of the Parish in 1903.

Moore, Jacob Bailey.
History of the Town of Candia, Rockingham County, NH, from its First Settlement to the Present Time. Manchester, NH: G. W. Browne, 1893.
Contains a brief anecdote of the life of Mrs. Flora Stewart of Londonderry who resided in Candia for several years. She was a former slave who supposedly died at age 118.

Moorhead, James H.
American Apocalypse: Yankee Protestants and the Civil War, 1860-1869. New Haven: Yale University, 1978.
Includes chapter on relation of slavery issue to prosecution of the Civil War for American Protestants (pp. 82-128); later chapters on Reconstruction include reflections on place of freedmen in Protestants' thinking about reconstructing the South, missionary and educational activities, etc.

Morgan, Forrest, ed.
Connecticut as a Colony and as a State; Or, One of the Original Thirteen. 4 vols. Hartford: The Publishing Society of Connecticut, 1904.
The first three volumes have numerous references to African-Americans, slaves, and slavery; discussion of the abolishment of slavery in Connecticut and the custom of the African-American governor (pp. 257-260).

Morison, George Abbot.
History of Peterborough, New Hampshire. 2 vols. Rindge, NH: Richard R. Smith, 1954.
Includes a brief recounting of the life of Sam Jones, known as "Baker." Born a slave, he attended school as a young boy and purchased his freedom for $200 (which he never paid) at age 22.

Morrison, Leonard Allison.
The History of Windham in New Hampshire (Rockingham County), 1719-1883: A Scotch Settlement (Commonly Called Scotch-Irish), Embracing Nearly One Third of the Ancient Settlement and Historic Township of Londonderry, NH. Boston: Cupples, Upham, 1883.
Town history. Contains brief discussions of slavery in New Hampshire, population statistics, the antislavery movement, the Antislavery Society in Windham, and "colored people" of Windham (pp. 237-242).

Morse, Howard H.
Historic Old Rhinebeck, Echoes of Two Centuries. Rhinebeck, NY: The Author, 1908.
Has a section on slavery (pp. 351-355).

Morse, Jarvis Means.
A Neglected Period of Connecticut's History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1933.
Chapter 5, "Humanitarianism and Social Reform," deals with societal problems in the second quarter of the 19th century and includes discussion of Prudence Crandall's school, Connecticut abolitionism, and the Amistad affair.

Morse, Jedidiah.
American Geography; Or, A View of the Present Situation of the United States of America. 2nd ed. London: John Stockdale, 1792.
Material on the United States contains a number of references to slavery.

Morse, Jedidiah.
American Universal Geography; Or, A View of the Present State of all the Kingdoms, States and Colonies in the Known World. 7th ed. 2 vols. Charlestown: Lincoln & Edmands; Boston: S. Etheridge, 1819.
These two volumes of geography contain a rather thorough section on Africa as well as references to African-American slavery and slaves in the sections on the new world. The section on the Haitian Revolution calls Toussaint L'Overture "the best man and one of the greatest, whom the French revolution called forth." Atlas wanting.

Morse, Jedidiah.
American Universal Geography: Or, A View of the Present State of All the Kingdoms, States and Colonies in the Known World. 6th ed. 2 vols. Boston: Thomas & Andrews, 1812.
This is an earlier edtion of the same book containing, material on all that was part of the U.S. in 1812. Atlas wanting.

Morse, Jedidiah.
American Universal Geography: Or, A View of the Present State of All the Kingdoms, States and Republicks in the Known World, and of the United States of America in Particular. 5th ed. 2 vols. Boston: Thomas & Andrews, 1805.
Introduction to Part I revised by Samuel Webber. Part II 4th edition.

Morse, Jedidiah.
American Universal Geography: Or, A View of the Present State of All the Kingdoms, States and Republics, in the Known World, and of the United States of America in particular. 2 vols. Boston: Isaiah Thomas & Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1796.
Introduction revised and amended by Samuel Webber. The earliest edtition of Morse's American Universal Geography contains a condemnation of the slave trade as well as a full, sympathetic account of the slave insurrection on Haiti.

Morse, Jedidiah.
Geography Made Easy: Being an Abridgement of the American Universal Geography. 17th ed. Boston: Thomas & Andrews, 1814.
Library has numerous earlier editions: 1790, 1794, [1798], 1802, 1806, 1807, 1809, 1811, 1812, and 1813. This edition of Morse's geography has a very abridged section on Africa and contains references to slaves and slavery in the sections on the new world.

Morse, Jedidiah.
New Gazetteer of the Eastern Continent; Or, A Geographical Dictionary, Containing All of the Countries, Kingdoms, States, Cities... in Europe, Asia, Africa, and their Adjacent Islands.... Designed as a Second Volume to the American Gazetteer. Charlestown: Samuel Etherbridge, 1802.
This gazetteer is interesting because it shows the state of misinformation about Africa at the time.

Morse, Jedidiah.
New Universal Gazetteer; Or, Geographical Dictionary, Containing a Description of the Various Countries, Provinces, Cities, Towns, Seas... &c. in the Known World. With an Appendix. 3rd ed. New Haven: Sherman Converse; Hartford: Silas Andrus, 1821.
Gazeteer. Entries for Africa and "Negroland."

Morse, Jedidiah.
New Universal Gazetteer; Or, Geographical Dictionary, Containing a Description of the Various Countries, Provinces, Cities, Towns, Seas... &c. in the Known World. With an Appendix. 4th ed. New Haven: S. Converse, 1823.
This gazetteer shows the state of knowledge about Africa, especially the interior, at the time. The articles on the African rivers deal with the exploration of, and the various opinions as to their courses, up to this time.

Mountain, Joseph.
Sketches of the Life of Joseph Mountain, a Negro, Who Was Executed in New Haven, on the 20th Day of October, 1790, for a Rape. New Haven: T. & S. Green, [1790]. —another ed.: Hartford: Nathaniel Patten, [1790]. —another ed.: Hudson, N.Y.: A. Stoddard, 1790.
Born a slave in Pennsylvania, he became first a seaman, then an outlaw. Describes marriage with a white woman of property while in England; return to America; commission of the crime for which he was executed.

Munsell, Joel.
Annals of Albany. 10 vols. Albany: J. Munsell, 1850-1859.
Entries for slaves and African-Americans in Volumes 2-7, 9, and 10.

Murphy, Russell Davis.
Policy Innovation and Political Strategy in an American City: The Formative Years of New Haven, Connecticut's, Anti-poverty Program. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1987.
PhD dissertation studying the anti-poverty project in New Haven. Pages 31-34 deal specifically with the African-American community.

Murray, Lindley.
The English Reader; Or, Pieces in Prose and Poetry, Selected From the Best Writers, Designed to Assist Young Persons to Read With Propriety and Effect; to Improve Their Language and Sentiments; and to Inculcate Some of the Most Important Principles of Piety and Virtue; With a Few Observations on the Principles of Good Reading. Bennington: Darius Clark, 1821.
Juvenile. Includes selection entitled "Indignant Sentiments on National Prejudices and Hatred; and on Slavery," drawn from the poetry of William Cowper (pp. 210-211).

Murray, Thomas Hamilton.
History of the Ninth Regiment, Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, "The Irish Regiment," in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-65: The Record of a Gallant Command on the March, in Battle and in Bivouac. New Haven: Price, Lee & Adkins, 1903.
Includes some reflections on African-Americans employed at various times by the regiment; one incident involving disciplining of unruly company of African- American cavalry (pp. 166-67).

National Portrait Gallery. Smithsonian Institution.
Permanent Collection Illustrated Checklist. Washington, D.C.: National Portrait Gallery, 1982.
Includes portrait(s) of numerous prominent African-Americans.

National Portrait Gallery. Smithsonian Institution.
Portraits From The Americans: The Democratic Experience. An Exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery Based on Daniel J. Boorstin's Pulitzer Prize-winning Book. New York: Random House, 1975.
Includes portraits and commentary on several twentieth-century African-American writers (pp. 102-109).

New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, NH.
Collections . v. 1 + , 1824 +
Contains contexts of receipts for an African-American boy named Duke used in the defense of Gov. John Wentworth in the suit brought against him by Peter Livius (9:309-311). Library has vols. 1-11. Publication suspended 1916-1927.

Horstein, Harold (Ed. & comp.)
New Haven Celebrates the Bicentennial: Commemorative Book. New Haven: New Haven Bicentennial Commission, c1976.
"The Black Community" presents an overview of slavery, discusses the history of the African-American churches in New Haven, and lists many African-Americans who have figured prominently in New Haven's history.

New Haven Colony Historical Society.
Papers of the New Haven Colony Historical Society. 10 vols. New Haven: The Society, 1865-1951.
Simeon Baldwin's "The Captives of the Amistad," a comprehensive history of the Amistad Affair (4:331-370); Franklin Bowditch Dexter's "New Haven in 1784" has a brief reference to domestic slavery, citing newspaper ads for the sale of slaves (4:130); Gardiner Morse's "Recollections of the Appearance of New Haven Between 1825 and 1837" mentions William Lanson, a New Haven African-American referred to as "the king of the colored race" (5:98); Mary H. Mitchell's "Slavery in Connecticut and New Haven" is a general history of slavery with many references to specific slaves and slave owners in New Haven; also mentions the Amistad case and several whites involved in the abolitionist movement (10:286-312).

New London (CT). Citizens.
Public Meeting. New London: [s.n.], 1835.
Call for a public meeting to demonstrate that "this city is decidely hostile to the movements of the abolition faction"; signed in print by 68 citizens of the town.

New Testament Against Slavery.
[s.l.: s. n., n. d.]
Examines position of major Protestant denominations; detailed exposition of biblical argument against slavery.

Newman, Debra L.
List of Black Servicemen, Compiled From the War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records. Washington: G.S.A., 1974.
Listings by state of African-American servicemen compiled from a variety of military source records in the National Archives. Gives name, regiment, rank, and card, roll or page number of the Archives source.

Newman, Debra L.
List of Free Black Heads of Families in the First Census of the U.S., 1790. Washington: G.S.A., 1973.
State by state listing of individual names of African-American heads of household abstracted from the 1790 federal census. Includes number in family and the page number of the printed volumes of the census on which the listing is found. Does not list the town of residence.

Newman, Richard.
Lemuel Haynes, a Bio-bibliography. New York: Lambeth Press, [n. d.]


Newton, Alexander H.
Out of the Briars: An Autobiography and Sketch of the Twenty-ninth Regiment Connecticut Volunteers. Philadelphia: African Methodist Episcopal Book Concern, 1910.
Newton, an African-American, enlisted in the 29th Conn. Vols. in 1863 and served through the end of the Civil War. He subsequently entered the African Methodist Episcopal ministry and became a member of its New Jersey Conference. Includes several sermons.

Newport Historical Society.
Newport History. Vol. 54, Part 2 (Spring 1981), #182.
"The Black Privateersman," by John Fitzhugh Millar, describes an enigmatic painting of an African-American man in Revolutionary War navy uniform (pp. 51- 57).

Niles, John Milton.
Speech of Hon. J. M. Niles, of Connecticut, on the Compromise Bill, Delivered in the Senate of the United States, July 25, 1848. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Globe, 1848.
As slavery is not only "a civil and political evil, but morally wrong," it should not be introduced into the territories.

Niles, John Milton.
Speech of Mr. Niles, of Connecticut, on the Petitions of a Society of Friends in Pennsylvania, Praying for the Abolition of Slavery in the District of Columbia. In Senate, February 15, 1836. Washington, D.C.: Blair & Rives, 1836.
Defends right of citizens to petition Congress for the abolition of slavery and asserts it is the duty of Congress to receive such petitions; discusses legal and philosophical aspects of slavery from an antislavery point of view.

Niven, John.
Connecticut for the Union; The Role of the State in the Civil War. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965.
Has scattered references to African-Americans' participation in Connecticut's Civil War efforts.

Nourse, Henry Stedman.
History of the Town of Harvard, Massachusetts, 1732-1893. Harvard: W. Hapgood, 1894.
Scattered references to African-American slaves in Harvard, including three pages of brief anecdotes concerning the African-American population in Harvard during the 18th century (pp. 403-406) .


The Nursery: A Monthly Magazine for Youngest Readers. Vol. 16. Boston: John L. Shorey, 1874.
Juvenile. Includes story entitled "Dooley's curls" by Jane Oliver (pseud.), narrating an incident of an African-American girl's acquiring curls from wood- shavings, with accompanying picture (pp. 129-131).

Offley, Greensburg Washington.
A Narrative of the Life and Labors of the Rev., G. W. Offley, a Colored Man, and Local Preacher and Missionary, Who Lived Twenty-seven Years at the South and Twenty-three at the North; Who Never Went to School a Day in his Life and Only Commenced to Learn his Letters When Nineteen Years and Eight Months Old; the Emancipation of His Mother and Her Three Children; How He Learned to Read While Living in a Slave State, and Supported Himself From the Time He Was Nine Years Old Until He was Twenty-one. Hartford: [s. n.], 1859.
Born a slave in Maryland, Offley became a Methodist local preacher; describes his life in Maryland and Delaware; narrates incidents in lives of several other slaves.

Offley, Greensburg Washington.
A Narrative of the Life and Labors of the Rev. G. W. Offley, a Colored Man, and Local Preacher. Hartford: [s. n.], 1860.
See note for 1859 edition. This edition has only Offley's own narrative and two hymn-poems.

Olmsted, Frederick Law.
A Journey in the Back Country. New York: Mason Brothers, 1860.
Entire volume deals with slavery in the South.


Olympic Open Every Night. Talent Commands Success! Pierce's Minstrels. [s.l.: s.n.], 1850.
Broadside. Playbill advertising a performance by a company of African-American minstrels, including "the original Pompey, late of Christy's Minstrels."

Delana, Alice and Cynthia Reik. (Eds.)
On Common Ground: A Selection of Hartford Writers. Hartford: Stowe-Day Foundation, 1975.
This book of short selections from poetry, fiction, essays, etc. contains part of Frederick Law Olmsted's reporting from The Slave States, Stowe's preface to Uncle Tom's Cabin, and several poems from African-American poet Lucy Cooper Summers.

Opie, Amelia Alderson.
The Negro Boy's Tale; a Poem, to Which Are Added The Morning Dream, by Cowper, and Other Poems. New York: Samuel Wood, [n. d.].
Juvenile. See note for London edition.

Opie, Amelia Alderson.
The Negro Boy's Tale, a Poem, Addressed to Children. London: Harvey & Darton, 1824.
Juvenile. Addressed originally to a British audience, this juvenile poem, with a prose introduction, circulated in the United States as an antislavery tract for children.

Orcutt, Samuel.
History of Torrington, Connecticut, from Its First Settlement in 1737, with Biographies and Genealogies. Albany: J. Munsell, 1878.
Has a chapter on slavery and antislavery (pp. 210-220).

Gardner, James B. and George Rollie Adams. (Eds.)
Ordinary People and Everyday Life. Nashville: The American Association for State and Local History, 1983.
Includes a chapter on "Race, Ethnicity, and Culture Pluralism in American History," by Howard N. Rabibowitz, with bibliography (pp. 23-49).

Osterweis, Rollin Gustav.
Three Centuries of New Haven, 1683-1938. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.
Chapters 26 and 27 deal with African-Americans in the New Haven community, specifically discussing the reaction to the proposed African-American college in New Haven and the Amistad affair.

Owens, William A.
Slave Mutiny: The Revolt on the Schooner Amistad. New York: John Day, [n. d.].
Account of the Amistad incident, with some fictionalised conversation.

Paddock, Judah.
Narrative of the Shipwreck of the Ship Oswego, on the Coast of South Barbary, and of the Sufferings of the Master and the Crew While in Bondage Among the Arabs; Interspersed With Numerous Remarks Upon the Country and Its Inhabitants, and Concerning the Peculiar Perils of that Coast. New York: Captain James Riley, 1818.
This travel narrative deals with an American crew, including two African- Americans, falling into slavery at the hands of the Arabs. The master of the crew tells the story and relates a number of instances where circumstances bring to mind the fate of Africans brought unjustly to slavery in America.

Palmquist, David W.
Bridgeport: A Pictorial History. Virginia Beach, VA: Donning, 1981.
Book contains several specific references to landmarks and people associated with African-American history in Bridgeport.

Papaleo, William Gugliermo.
Willie Pep Remembers Friday's Heroes. New York: Friday's Heroes, 1973.
Memoirs of the career of this famous Hartford boxer, known as Willie Pep. Includes many stories about prize fights involving African-American boxers.

Pape, William Jamieson, ed.
History of Waterbury and the Naugatuck Valley, Connecticut. Chicago, New York: S. J. Clarke, 1918.
Mentions the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church of Winsted, founded approximately 1902 (p. 423).

Park, Mungo.
Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa, Performed Under the Direction and Patronage of the African Association, in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797 ... With an Appendix, Containing Geographical Illustrations of Africa, By Major Rennell. Philadelphia: James Humphreys, 1800.
Library has another edition published in New York in 1800. This book of the exploration of the interior of West Africa in the 1790's by the Scottish explorer and doctor, Mungo Park, gives particulars about the natives of the area as well as the geography. With a vocabulary of the Mandingo language and an "illustration" concerning the geographical discoveries of Dr. Park.


Parley's Magazine (New York: C. S. Francis; Boston: J. H. Francis).
Juvenile. Vol. 2 (1834). Includes a brief article entitled "Sketches of the South, No. III," describing work of African-American laborers in the cypress swamp (2:71-72), and a story entitled "The Faithful Colored Man" describing how a hospitable African saves the life of a white American sailor. Vol. 3 (1835) includes brief article on the number of slave children in American (3:167); a story about an African-American boy's saving a drowning white boy (3:171-172); and "The Negro Funeral" (3:197-198). Volume 5 (1837) includes "Education in the Chimney Corner: Mr. Haynes the Colored Preacher" (5:108). Vol. 8 (1840) includes an article on wolves, which recounts a tale of an African-American man's encounter with a pack of wolves and how he outwitted them.


Passages in the Life of Jack Blackstone, a Christian Negro; By One Who Knew Him. Hartford: Elihu Greer, 1843.
Pathetic, and sympathetic, account of the tragic effects of liquor on the life of a free African-American man and his two wives.

Patton, William Weston.
Freedom's Martyr: A Discourse on the Death of the Rev. Charles T. Torrey. Hartford: W. H. Burleigh, 1846.
Imprisoned in 1844 for attempting to aid in the escape of several slaves, he contracted consumption and died in prison. A eulogy, extolling his activity in behalf of abolitionism.

Pawlowski, Robert E.
How the Other Half Lived: An Ethnic History of the Old East Side and South End of Hartford. [West Hartford, CT: s. n., 1973.]
Discusses the African-American community in Hartford (p. 20-29).

Pearl, Cyril.
Remarks on African Colonization and the Abolition of Slavery. Windsor, VT: Richards & Tracy, 1833.
Ardently opposed to slavery, but defends Colonization Society against attacks of the immediate abolitionists.

Peck, Chauncey Edwin.
The History of Wilbraham, Massachusetts, Prepared in Connection With the Celebration of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Incorporation of the Town. June 15, 1913. [s. l.: s. n.], 1914.
Contains a short account of "Slavery in Wilbraham," which includes the story of Luke and Luc, slaves of Dr. Samuel F. Merrick.

Peck, Epaphroditus.
A History of Bristol, Connecticut. Hartford: Lewis Street Bookshop, 1932.
Mentions slave population statistics; also, Job and Silpah, the slaves owned by William Jerome (pp. 105-106).

Pennington, J. W. C.
The Reasonableness of the Abolition of Slavery at the South, a Legitimate Inference from the Success of British Emancipation: An Address, Delivered at Hartford, Conn., on the First of August, 1856. Hartford: Case, Tiffany, 1856.
The success of emancipation in British West Indies proves that it can succeed in the United States as well.

Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery.
Memorials Presented to the Congress of the United States of American by the Different Societies Instituted for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, &c. &c. in the States of Rhode-Island, Connecticut, New-York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. Philadelphia: Francis Bailey, 1792.
Text of memorials of state societies either to end slavery or the slave trade with Africa.

Perkins, Mary Elizabeth.
Old Houses of the Antient Town of Norwich, 1660-1800, with Maps, Illustrations, Portraits and Genealogies. 2 vols. Norwich, CT: Press of the Bulletin, 1895.
Volume I has a brief chapter on slavery in Norwich (pp. 127-129).

Perrin, William Henry, ed.
History of Stark County, With an Outline Sketch of Ohio. Chicago: Baskin & Battey, 1881.
Sections deal with Underground Railroad in the towns of Marlborough (p. 574) and Washington (pp. 592-593).

Peters, Samuel.
A General History of Connecticut, from Its First Settlement under George Fenwick, Esq., to Its Latest Period of Amity with Great Britain; Including a Description of the Country, and Many Curious and Interesting Anecdotes, To Which Is Added, an Appendix, Wherein New and True Sources of the Present Rebellion in America Are Pointed Out; Together with the Particular Part Taken by the People of Connecticut in Its Promotion. London: The Author, 1781.
Notes trial in Hartford of a case involving an African-American who castrated his master's son (p. 83); includes observations on the evil of slavery in the southern colonies/states (pp. 114-116). Two copies.

Peterson, Edward.
History of Rhode Island. New York: John S. Taylor, 1853.
Contains comments on the slave trade in Newport (pp. 103-110).

Phelps, Amos Augustus.
Lectures on Slavery and Its Remedy. Boston: New-England Anti-Slavery Society, 1834.
Series of lectures urging abolition of slavery by Boston clergyman who subsequently became agent of the Massachusetts Antislavery Society. Appendix supplies examples of ill-treatment of slaves, etc.

Phelps, Amos Augustus.
Letters to Professor Stowe and Dr. Bacon, on God's Real Method with Great Social Wrongs, in Which the Bible is Vindicated from Grossly Erroneous Interpretations. New York: American and Foreign Anti-slavery Society, 1848.
Deplores the prevarication of northern clergymen like Calvin Stowe and Nathaniel Bacon on the evil of slavery; asserts that fellowship with the slaveholder and toleration of the slave system is wholely at odds with the principles of Christianity.

Philbrick, John D.
The American Union Speaker; Containing Standard and Recent Selections in Prose and Poetry, for Recitation and Declamation, in Schools, Academies and Colleges; With Introductory Remarks on Elocution, and Explanatory Notes. Boston: Taggard and Thompson, 1865.
Juvenile. Includes several selections from classic antislavery speeches (British and American) and one poem, "The Black Regiment; or, the Second Louisiana at the Storming of Port Hudson," by G. H. Boker.

Philbrick, John D.
The Primary Union Speaker, Containing Original and Selected Pieces for Declamation and Recitation in Primary Schools. Boston: Taggard & Thompson, 1867.
Juvenile. Includes poem by J. N. Mars, entitled "God Never Made a Slave" (p. 146).

Philleo, Prudence (Crandall), plaintiff.
Report on the Arguments of Counsel in the Case of Prudence Crandall, plff. in error, vs. State of Connecticut, Before the Supreme Court of Errors, at Their Session at Brooklyn, July Term, 1834. Boston: Garrison & Knapp, 1834.
Transcripts of the arguments made by the attorneys in Prudence Crandall's action against the State of Connecticut.

Phillips, Daniel Lyon.
Griswold:A History; Being a History of the Town of Griswold, Connecticut, from the Earliest Times to the Entrance of Our Country into the World War of 1917. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1929.
Has a short chapter which includes the names of eight slave owners and a sketch of Prince Monday, Griswold's last slave (pp. 171-173).

Phillips, Wendell.
Review of Webster's Speech on Slavery. Boston: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1850.
Vehement attack on the institution of slavery, its expansion into the territories, and on Webster's speech on the 1850 Compromise.

Piersen, William D.
Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American Subculture in Eighteenth- Century New England. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1988.


Pierson, Emily Catherine, Mrs.
Jamie Parker, the Fugitive. Hartford: Brockett, Fuller, 1851.
Fictional account of slave who escapes to freedom in Canada.

Platt, Orville Hitchcock.
Negro Governors. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1900.
"From advance sheets of Vol. VI, Papers of the New Haven Colony Historical Society." Describes custom of electing an African-American "governor" in late colonial and early 19th century Connecticut.

Poletika, Petrovich Ivaniviche.
A Sketch of the Internal Condition of the United States of America, and of their Political Relations With Europe, by a Russian. Translated from the French, by an American, with Notes. Baltimore: E. J. Coale, 1826.
Includes numerous incidental observations and notes on American slavery and its effects on the social and economic structure of society.

Pomfret, John Edwin.
The Province of East New Jersey, 1609-1702: The Rebellious Proprietary. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, University Press, 1962.
Discusses slave regulations in East New Jersey from 1694 to 1696 (p. 292).

Porter, Noah.
Two Sermons on Church Communion and Excommunication, With a Particular View to the Case of Slaveholders in the Church. Hartford: Case, Tiffany, 1853.
While opposed to slavery as a moral evil, the church should not exclude the slaveholder from the sacraments of the church. Attempts to distinguish between the slaveholder and the system of slavery in this regard.


Practical Reading Lesson's on the Three Great Duties Which Man Owes to His Maker, His Fellow Beings, and Himself; Illustrated by Numerous Interesting Historical Anecdotes, Biographical Sketches, &c. Intended for the Instruction and Amusement of Youth. Baltimore: Lucas & Deaver, 1830.
Juvenile. Includes anecdote of General Whipple's freeing his African-American slave during the American Revolution (pp. 80-81).

Pratt, Walter Merriam.
Seven Generations; a Story of Prattville and Chelsea. [Norwood, MA]: Privately Printed, 1930.
Chapter LXI, "The Story of a Sailor's Life 100 Years Ago," is an account of the sailing career of Capt. Samuel Lamont from 1793 to 1840, including mention of the African slave trade and a mutinous incident aboard a slave transport vessel.


The Praying Negro, An Authentic Narrative. Tract 92. Andover: New England Tract Society, 1818.
Describes African-American woman praying for the welfare of a master who has mistreated her.

Prentice, George Dennison.
Biography of Henry Clay. Hartford: Samuel Hanmer, Jr. &John Jay Phelps, 1831.
This contemporary biography and encomium of the senator from Kentucky who loomed so large in the politics of union and slavery contains a valuable section on the Missouri Compromise. It also has several pages on Clay's involvement with the American Colonization Society.

Price, Carl Fowler.
Postscripts to Yankee Township. East Hampton, CT: East Hampton Bicentennial Committee, 1975.
Chapter 12, "Slaves in Connecticut," is a concise but detailed history of slavery in Connecticut (pp. 49-53).

Price, Carl Fowler.
Yankee Township. East Hampton, CT: Citizens' Welfare Club, 1975.
Chapter 5, "An African Yankee," recounts the story of Broteer, better known as Venture Smith, an African prince sold into slavery, who ultimately purchased his own freedom.

Prichard, Katharine Adelaid.
Ancient Burying-grounds of the Town of Waterbury, Connecticut, Together with Other Records of Church and Town. Waterbury: Mattatuck Historical Society, 1917.
Index has many entries under "negroes."

Proctor, C. H.
The Life of James Williams, Better Known as Professor Jim, for Half a Century Janitor of Trinity College. Hartford: Case, Lockwood & Brainard, 1873.
Born a slave in New York about 1790; worked as a sailor and waiter; came to Hartford under the auspices of Bishop Brownell and found employment at Trinity College in 1823.

Putnam, Alfred Porter.
A Discourse on William Lloyd Garrison, and the Anti-slavery Movement, Delivered at the Church of the Savior, Brooklyn, N. Y., Sunday Evening, June 1, 1879. Brooklyn: Tremlett, 1879.
Appreciative funeral eulogy, stressing Garrison's leadership of the antislavery cause.

Quien, George.
Reminiscences of the Service and Experience of Lieut. George Quien of Company K Twenty-third Regiment Connecticut Volunteers. Waterbury: [s. n.], 1906.
Records a number of incidents involving African-Americans, relations between African-Americans and slaveowners, and African-Americans and the Union troops.

Quincy, Josiah.
Address Illustrative of the Nature and Power of the Slave States and the Duties of the Free States; Delivered at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Quincy, Mass., on Thursday, June 5, 1856. Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1856.
Quotes extensively from conversations with John Quincy Adams to the effect that "the bargain between freedom and slavery, contained in the Constitution of the United States, is morally and politically vicious."

Ramsdell, George A.
The History of Milford. Concord, NH: The Town, 1901.
Includes text of 1842 document, "A Voice from the Jail," by Thomas Parnell Beach, calling for an antislavery meeting in Milford, NH, on January 4 and 5, 1843 (pp. 106-108).

Ray, Deborah Wing, and Gloria P. Stewart.
Norwalk: Being an Historical Account of that Connecticut Town. Canaan, NH: Norwalk Historical Society, 1979.
Has scattered references to African-Americans in the Norwalk community and a short history of slavery in Norwalk (pp. 118-121).

Read, John M.
Speech of Hon. John M. Read, in Favor of Free Kansas, Free White Labor, and of Fremont and Dayton, at the Eighth Ward Mass Meeting, Held in the Assembly Buildings, on Tuesday Evening, September 30, 1856. Philadelphia: [s. n.], 1856.
In this campaign speech in the Presidential canvass of 1856, Read opposes expansion of slavery into the territories.

Redpath, James.
The Public Life of Capt. John Brown... With an Auto-biography of his Childhood and Youth. Boston: Thayer & Eldridge, 1860.
Biography of the abolitionist John Brown written by a personal acquaintance, compiled "from hundreds of sources—newspapers, books, correspondence, and conversations." Includes full texts of selected letters to and from Brown.


The Religous Intelligencer for the Year Ending May, 1817, Containing the Principal Transctions of the Various Bible and Missionary Societies, With Particular Accounts of Revivals of Religion. Vol. I. New Haven: Nathan Whiting, 1817.
Includes articles about and reports of the American Colonization Society; articles on slaves and slavery; slave trade. Library holdings include vols. 1- 21, with some gaps.


Remembering Connecticut: 30 Perspectives on Connecticut's History. 2 audiocassettes. Connecticut: Connecticut Public Radio, 1987.
Side 2, "The Nation's Conscience" includes the following: "James Mars: A Slave in Connecticut, Parts 1 & 2"; "Prudence Crandall, Abolitionist"; and "The Amistad Affair."

Remington, Mary E.
Extracts from the Journals of Miss M. E. Remington, Missionary of the Welcome Hall Mission, New Haven, Conn. New Haven: M. E. Remington, 1892.
Describes experiences in settlement (social) work, including some people described as "colored."


The Republic and its Crisis: Speeches of Hon. Edward Everett, at the Boston Union Meeting, Dec. 8 1859; and of Ex-Gov. Thos. H. Seymour, and Prof. Samuel Eliot, of Trinity College, at Hartford Union Meeting, Dec. 14, 1859. [s. l.: s. n.], 1860.
Representing position of the Constitutional Union Party in the 1860 Presidential election (Everett was its Vice-Presidential candidate); while deploring slavery, advises moderation of action and toleration of Southern position.

Republican Party. Illinois. State Central Committee.
Political Record of Stephen A. Douglas on the Slavery Question: A Tract Issued by the Illinios Republican State Central Committee. [s. l.: s. n., ca. 1860.]
Anti-Douglas document used in the Presidential canvass of 1860; attempts to demonstrate that Douglas has been inconsistent in his stand on slavery issue and that he is essentially pro-slavery.


Republicans! Democrats! A Word with You about Negro Suffrage. [s. l.: s.n.], 1869.
Broadside. Addressed to voters in Connecticut, urging them not to support the proposed 15th Amendment to the Federal Constitution, as a usurpation of state's power by the federal government.


Review of Pamphlets on Slavery and Colonization. Second separate edition. New Haven: A. H. Maltby, 1833.
First published in the Quarterly Christian Spectator, for March 1833. Defends colonization, and the American Colonization Society, against attacks by William Lloyd Garrison and other immediate abolitionists.

Rhode Island Historical Society.
Proceedings, 1872-1892, (1901-05).
Includes a general history of slavery in Rhode Island to 1776 (2: 113-164). Divided into two parts dealing with slavery before 1755 and slavery between 1755 and 1776, it contains such topics as the law and the slave, social life of the slaves, and antislavery agitation.


Rhode Island Historical Tracts. [1st ser.] no. 1-20; 2nd. ser., no. 1-5. Providence: Sidney S. Rider, 1877-[1896].
Contains two articles, "An Historical Inquiry into the Attempt to Raise a Regiment of Slaves in Rhode Island" (10: v-xxii) and "The Rhode Island Black `Regiment' of 1778"(10: 1-86).

Richardson, Albert Deane.
Beyond the Mississippi: From the Great River to the Great Ocean; Life and Adventure on the Prairies, Mountains, and Pacific Coast. Hartford: American Publishing, 1867.
Library also has a 1869 edition of this book. A book of travel, this volume contains much about the warfare over Kansas, ancedotes about John Brown, and trips of fugitive slaves to freedom in Iowa.

Richardson, Albert Deane.
The Secret Service, the Field, the Dungeon, and the Escape. Hartford: American Publishing Company, 1865.
Describes his impressions of the South in 1861, while serving as correspondent for the New York Tribune (pp. 1-124); numerous anecdotes relating to African- Americans throughout.

Richmond, Legh.
Little Jane: Or, the Young Cottager, and Other Stories. New York: Carlton & Phillips, 1855.
Juvenile. Reprint of an English collection by the publishing house of the Methodist Episcopal Church; includes story entitled "The Negro Servant," vehicle for a condemnation of slavery and the slave trade (pp. 5-50).

Ricketson, Daniel.
The History of New Bedford, Bristol County, Massachusetts; Including a History of the Old Township of Dartmouth and the Present Townships of Westport, Darmouth, and Fairhaven. New Bedford: The Author, 1858.
Chapter 20 contains a biographical sketch of Capt. Paul Cuffee including a poem about Cuffee penned by Phillis Wheatley (pp. 252-264). An earlier sketch on the Friends in New Bedford includes a poem entitled "On The Slave Trade" (pp. 241- 243).


The Riverside Magazine for Young People (New York: Hurd & Houghton), #1 (1868).
Juvenile. Includes story by Helen C. Weeks, entitled "Ainslee," about a mischievous white boy named Ainslee and his African-American friend "Sinny" (pp. 136-141).

Rockwell, George Lounsbury.
The History of Ridgefield, Connecticut. Harrison, NY: Harbor Hill Books, 1979.
Cites several town documents containing references to slaves (pp. 54-56). Reprint of the 1927 edition published by the author in Ridgefield, CT; illustrations have been slightly rearranged and a table of contents has been added.

Rockwell, John A.
The Amistad Case: Speech of Hon. J. A. Rockwell, of Conn., in the House of Representatives, August 8, 1848, On the Proposition to Indemnify the Owners of the Spanish Schooner Amistad. [s. l.: s. n., ca. 1848.]
As the Mendi Africans were never property, the claim for indemnity is "not only untenable, but most preposterous."

Rockwell, John A.
California and New Mexico: Speech of Mr. John A. Rockwell, of Connecticut, in Relation to Slavery in the Territories, Delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States, February 17, 1849. Washington, D.C.: J. & C. Gideon, [1849].
Supports resolutions of the Connecticut legislature of 24 June 1847, praying that territories acquired as result of the Mexican War remain forever free from slavery. Quotes resolutions and excerpts from various related documents.

Rogers, John E.
A Bicentennial Booklet for the Inner City. West Hartford: University of Hartford, 1975.
Sketches of the lives of prominent African-Americans in the Revolutionary era.

Rollins, Richard Meryl.
The Long Journey of Noah Webster. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1976.
This thesis on the intellectual journeys of Noah Webster contains an explanation of his views on slavery, African-Americans, and emancipation, with references to the pertinent writings of Webster. It makes note of the fact that the African- Americans in Webster's writings were strong figures.

Romans, Bernard.
Concise Natural History of East and West Florida. Containing an Account of the Natural Produce of All the Southern Parts of British America. New York: R. Aitken, 1776.
Includes descriptions of slavery and plantation system in the South; takes issue with Rush's "Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America upon Slave-keeping," which he characterizes as an "enthusiastical production" (pp. 103-111).

Rose, James.
Black Genesis. Detroit: Gale, 1978.
Detailed accounting of genealogical methods and sources for African-American ancestral research. Listings are by state and include several brief case studies.

Rose, James M.
Tapestry: A Living History of the Black Family in Southeastern Connecticut. New London: New London County Historical Society, 1979.
History of African-American families in southeastern Connecticut from the late 17th century to 1850. Includes genealogies of seventeen African-American families.

Ross, Peter.
History of Long Island From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. 3 vols. New York and Chicago: Lewis, 1902.
Chapter 10, "Slavery on Long Island," includes a history of slavery on Long Island through the 18th century, plus town by town census statistics on slaves and numerous early 19th-century manumission records.

Roth, David Morris.
Connecticut, A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1979.
Mentions the African-American slaves in Colonial Connecticut (pp. 45-46); chapter 5 deals in part with the antislavery movement in Connecticut (pp. 123- 147).

Roth, David Morris, and Freeman Meyer.
From Revolution to Constitution: Connecticut, 1763 to 1818. Chester, CT: Pequot Press, 1975.
Mentions the antislavery law of 1784 (p. 79).

Roy, Louis E.
History of East Brookfield, Massachusetts, 1686-1970. Brookfield: Town of Brookfield, 1970.
"Slavery in Early New England, Particularly in Brookfield" contains a brief discussion of slavery in Brookfield, including mention of values and auction procedures for selling slaves, and names of some slave owners taken from the 1790 census (pp. 23-26).

Royall, Mrs. Anne (Newport).
Sketches of History, Life and Manners, in the United States. New-Haven: The Author, 1826.
A travel book that contains various anecdotes about African-American people, including one who saved Donnally's Fort from the Indians, and recounts the author's shock at seeing how much biological intermingling of the races there was in some places.

Rugoff, Milton.
The Beechers: An American Family in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.
Both a biography of the Beechers and a history of their roles in major social movements and changes in early and mid-19th century America, part of which was the antislavery agitation.

Rush, Benjamin.
An Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America Upon Slave- keeping. New York: Samuel Loudon, 1773.
Slavery cannot be justified on economic, philosophical, or moral grounds. Includes an extract from 1 April 1772 Minutes of the Virginia House of Burgesses, a petition to the crown to end the importation of slaves into the colony. Library also a 1773 edition published in Philadelphia.

Ruttenber, Edward Manning.
History of the County of Orange: With a History of the Town and City of Newburgh, General, Analytical, and Biographical. Newburgh, NY: E. M. Ruttenber & Son, 1875.
Footnote quotes a resolution designed to prevent African-Americans from assisting the King at the time of the American Revolution (p. 136).

Sargent, William Mitchell.
Maine Wills, 1640-1760. Portland: Brown, Thurston, 1887.
Lists forty entries for African-Americans involved in probate actions.

Saunders, Ernest.
The Autobiography of a Dual American: The Life Story of a Black American in a White Society. New Haven: Connecticut Afro-American Historical Society, 1979.
An African-American civil engineer in New Haven, and founder of the Connecticut Afro-American Historical Society, Mr. Saunders chronicles his boyhood in Hamden in the early 20th century, his years at the University of Michigan, his struggles to get work as an African-American engineer, and business and civic work in New Haven.

Saunders, Ernest.
Blacks in the Connecticut National Guard: A Pictorial and Chronological History, 1870-1919. [New Haven]: Connecticut African-American Historical Society, Inc., 1977.
During this period African-Americans served in separate organization from whites. Lists African-Americans from Connecticut who served in World War I.

Saybrook, CT.
Vital Records of Saybrook, 1647-1834. Hartford: The Connecticut Historical Society and the Connecticut Society of the Order of the Founders and Patriots of America, 1952.
Has several listings for African-Americans.

Schling, Dorothy T.
The Untold Story: Danbury's Unsung Role in the Revolution. Danbury, CT: Danbury Tricentennial Committee, c1985.
"Slaves Also Fought for Liberty" tells of Jehu Grant and Robin Starr, African- American men who served in the Revolution. Starr was a pensioner who received a Badge of Merit and whose discharge papers were signed by George Washington.


The Schoolfellow: A Magazine for Boys and Girls (Athens: W. C. Richards; Charleston: Richards & Walker).
Juvenile. The March 1856 issue includes an article, with woodcut portrait, on Emperor Faustin of Haiti, entitled "A Negro Monarch" (pp. 89-92).


The Schoolmate Monthly Reader for School and Home Instruction of Youth (New York: A. R. Phippen), #3 (1853).
Juvenile. Includes brief anecdote of the Emperor of Haiti (p. 367).

Schweitzer, George K.
Genealogical Source Book: A Compendium of Hundreds of Genealogical Sources with Precise Instructions for Obtaining Information From Them. [s.l.: s.n.], 1979.
Contains two pages (unnumbered) of references for African-American ancestral research.

Scott, Joseph.
New and Universal Gazetteer; Or, Modern Geographical Dictionary, Containing a Full and Authentic Description of the Different Empires, Kingdoms, Republics, States, ... in the Known World; ... Including the New Political Divisions of Europe, and Several Hundred Places in the United States of America Never Before Published. Philadelphia: Francis & Robert Bailey; Paterson & Cochran, 1779-1800.
This gazetteer has an entry for Africa that is remarkable for its passionate denunciation of the slave trade.

Seaver, Frederick J.
Historical Sketches of Franklin County and Its Several Towns, with Many Short Biographies. Albany: J. B. Lyon, 1918.
Has a chapter on the Underground Railroad (pp. 642-648).

Sedgwick, Charles Frederick.
General History of the Town of Sharon, Litchfield County, Conn., from Its First Settlement. 3rd ed. Amenia, NY: Charles Walsh, 1898.
Mentions Black Harry, a local preacher (p. 87).

Selsam, Millicent E.
Tony's Birds. New York: Harper, 1961.
Juvenile. African-American boy, encouraged by his father, discovers joys of bird watching, and shares his hobby with a white friend.

Senior, Robert Cholerton.
New England Congregationalists and the Anti-slavery Movement, 1830-1860. Ph.D. thesis, Yale University, 1954.
Analysis of the evolution of moderate antislavery sentiment from colonizationist sentiment in the 30 years prior to the Civil War.

Seward, William Henry.
The Admission of Kansas: Speech of William H. Seward, of New York, Delivered in the Senate of the United States, Feb. 29, 1860. Tribune Tracts 3. New York: New York Tribune, [ca1860].
Spirited attack on slavery as depriving the laborer of the fruits thereof, and advocacy of admission of Kansas as a free state.

Seward, William Henry.
The State of the Country: Speech of William H. Seward, In the United States Senate, February 29, 1860. [s. l.: s. n., ca. 1860]
Urges the immediate admission of Kansas as a free state. States that "the elementary question of the rightfulness or wrongfulness of slavery inheres in every form that discussion concerning it assumes." Reminds his hearers that the central issue is "the natural right or personal interest of the slave himself."

Sheldon, George.
A History of Deerfield, Massachusetts. Deerfield, 1895-96; rpt. ed.; Somersworth: New Hampshire Publishing, 1972.
Facsimile reprint. Contains a section dealing with slavery in Deerfield and contains accounts of a number of Deerfield African-Americans, including the "romance" of Abijah and Lucy (Terry) Prince, who became original proprieters of Sunderland, VT.

Shepard, James.
History of Saint Mark's Church, New Britain, Conn. and of Its Predecessor, Christ Church, Wethersfield and Berlin, from the First Church of England Service in America to Nineteen Hundred and Seven. New Britain, CT: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, 1907.
Mentions Jacob Oson, "a man of color," ordained an Episcopal priest in 1828 (p. 101).

Sherman, Henry.
Slavery in the United States of America; Its National Recognition and Relations, from the Establishment of the Confederacy, to the Present Time: A Word to the North and the South. Hartford: J. O. Hurlburt, 1858.
Discussion of the slavery issue from a legalistic and constitutional point of view; calls for observance of the laws and compromise. Library also has the second (1860) edition.

Sherwood, Mary Martha Butt.
The Re-Captured Negro. Newark: Benjamin Olds, 1823.
Juvenile. Addressed originally to a British audience, this fictional account of an African boy's capture, enslavement, subsequent release and re-settlement in Sierre Leone, was reprinted in the United States as an antislavery tract. Library also has another (1834) edition published in Greenfield, MA, by A. Phelps.gew

Shumway, Floyd, and Richard Hegel.
New Haven: An Illustrated History. Woodland Hills, CA: Windsor, 1981.
Has several references to African-Americans, African-American organizations and a brief discussion of the Amistad affair.

Silliman, Benjamin.
Some of the Causes of National Anxiety: An Address, Delivered in Centre Church in New-Haven, July 4, 1832. [s. l.: s. n., ca. 1832]
Characterizes slavery as an "enormous evil"; believes colonization to be the best solution because it "holds out an inducement for emancipation, which proves to be effectual; tends to allay fears of insurrection"; and prepares the way "for the final redemption of Africa."

Silverman, Kenneth.
A Cultural History of the American Revolution: Painting, Music, Literature, and the Theatre in the Colonies and the United States from the Treaty of Paris to the Inauguration of George Washington, 1763-1789. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1976.
Includes references throughout to contributions of African-Americans, as well as information on the image of African-Americans, in American culture of the Revolutionary War.

Skelton, Raleigh Ashlin.
Explorers' Maps: Chapters in the Cartographic Record of Geographical Discovery. New York: Praeger, 1958.
This concise history of maps associated with explorers' discoveries has a chapter on the rivers of Africa, from the 16th to the 19th centuries, with reproductions of the maps made by Western explorers of the African interior.


Sketch of the Origin and Progress of the American Colonization Society, With Some Notice of the Slave Trade, and of the Interior Condition of Africa. Hartford: P. Canfield, 1833.
Sympathetic account of the work of the Society; presents idealized picture of Liberia and of colonization as the best way to redress the wrongs done to Africa and Africans by the slave trade.


Slave Representation. [s. l.: s. n.], 1812.
"The Article authorising the Southern Negroes to be represented in Congress, is the rotten part of the Constitution, and must be amputated." Includes statistical analysis.


The Slave's Friend. New York: American Anti-slavery Society, [1837?].
Juvenile. Antislavery literature for children. Includes articles, poems, and woodcuts. Library has vol. 2, no. 7.

Smith, Chard Powers.
The Housatonic, Puritan River. New York: Rinehart, 1946.
Contains the story of Elizabeth Freeman, better known as "Mum Bett," whose suit against Colonel John Ashley legally abolished slavery in the state of Massachusetts (pp. 181-184). Mentions several incidents dealing with the abolitionist movement in western Connecticut.

Smith, Mrs. E. Vale.
History of Newburyport; From the Earliest Settlement of the Country to the Present Time, With a Biographical Appendix. Newburyport: [s. n.], 1854.
Discusses the case of Ceasar Hendrick who successfully sued his master Richard Greenleaf for holding him in bondage (pp. 55-56).

Smith, Gerrit.
Letter of Gerrit Smith to Rev. James Smylie, of the State of Mississippi. New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1837.
Refutes a southern clergyman's attempt at a Biblical defense of slavery.

Smith, James L.
Autobiography of James L. Smith, Including, Also, Reminescences of Slave Life, Recollections of the War, Education of Freedmen, Causes of the Exodus, etc. Norwich: Bulletin Company, 1881.
Slave narrative. Smith's story spans his childhood in Virginia, youth at sea, escape from slavery, resettlement in Norwich, and recollections of the Civil War. One chapter is devoted to African-Americans in the Civil War.

Smith, James L.
Autobiography of James L. Smith, Including, Also, Reminescences of Slave life, Recollections of the War, Education of Freedment, Causes of the Exodus, etc. Norwich: 1881; rpt. ed., Norwich: Thames, 1976.
Reprint of Smith's autobiography, with an added introduction about the African- American population in Norwich in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Smith, Samuel Francis.
History of Newton, Massachusetts, Town and City, From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, 1630-1880. Boston: American Logotype, 1880.
Chapter XLI, "Slavery," contains a very brief overview of slavery in Newton, with some statistics derived from Newton probate records.

Smith, Truman.
Speech of Truman Smith, of Connecticut, on the Nebraska Question: Delivered in the Senate of the United States, February 10 and 11, 1854. Washington, D.C.: Towers, 1854.
While personally opposed to slavery as "the South's misfortune," he would tolerate its continuance where it already exists but would resist its spread into new territories.

Smith, Venture.
Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, A Native of Africa But Resident Above Sixty Years in the United States. New London: C. Holt, [1798].
Slave narrative. The story of Venture Smith, son of an African prince, who was brought to America as a child and eventually purchased his freedom. Includes text of certificate of freedom.

Smith, Venture.
A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, A Native of Africa But Resident Above Sixty Years in the United States. [ s.l.] Reprinted and Published by a Descendant of Venture, 1835.
Reprint of 1798 edition. (Same as 1798 edition.)

Smith, Venture.
A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, A Native of Africa But Resident Above Sixty Years in the United States. Middletown: J. S. Stewart, 1897.
Narrative and text of certificate of freedom are followed, in this edition, by text of his gravestone and recollections of compiler of narrative.

Smith, William.
The History of the Province of New-York. Ed. Michael Kammen. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.
Has seven references to the "Negro Plot" of 1741.

Smith, William L. G.
Life at the South; Or, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" as It Is: Being Narratives, Scenes, and Incidents in the Real "Life of the Lowly." Buffalo: Derby, 1852.
According to the Preface, "The object which the author of the following story has in view is to represent the relation between master and slave."

Snowden, William H.
Some Old Historic Landmarks of Virginia and Maryland, ... A Hand-book for the Tourist Over the Washington, Alexandria and Mount Vernon Electric Railway. 4th ed. Alexandria, VA: Ramey, 1902.
Contains some anecdotes about "Washington's Servants" and includes the text of the ballad "Thornton Gray" (pp. 70-72).

Snyder, Zilpha Keatley.
The Egypt Game. [s. l.]: Atheneum, 1967.
Young Adult. A group of teen-agers, some African-American, pretend that they are ancient Egyptians, and become involved in a murder mystery.


The Southern Primer; Or, Child's First Lessons in Spelling and Reading. Richmond: Adolphus Morris, 1860.
Juvenile. First published in 1839. Includes reading exercise depicting African- American slaves as happily picking cotton. Library has a second copy of this edition and another edition, published in Charleston, SC, by Babcock and M'Carter, probably in the 1850's, with identical content.


The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy. Salt Lake City: Ancestry Publishing Company, 1984.
Chapter 19 (pp. 579-595) is a comprehensive chapter on African-American ancestral research. Includes listings and illustrations of source records available and a detailed bibliography.

Spencer, Ichabod S.
Fugitive Slave Law; The Religious Duty of Obedience to Law: A Sermon Preached in the Second Presbyterian Church in Brooklyn, Nov. 24, 1850. New York: M. W. Dodd, 1850.
Attempt to justify by scripture obedience to the Fugitive Slave Law, because it is the civil law.

Sprague, Homer B.
History of the 13th Infantry Regiment of Connecticut Volunteers, During the Great Rebellion. Hartford: Case, Lockwood, 1867.
Includes impressions of slaves, slavery and southern society in New Orleans, after its occupation by northern troops under B. F. Butler.

Spring, Gardiner.
Memoirs of the Rev. Samuel J. Mills, Late Missionary to the South Western Section of the United States, and Agent of the American Colonization Society, Deputed to Explore the Coast of Africa. New York: New-York Evangelical Missionary Society, 1820
Mills founded a school for the training of African-American preachers and was instrumental in the establishment of Liberia as a haven for freed American slaves.

Springman, Mary Jane.
East Granby, the Evolution of a Connecticut Town. Canaan, N.H.: East Granby Historical Society, 1983.
Brief comments on slaves and slavery, including names of some slaves owned by East Granby families (pp. 66-67; 208-210).

Stackpole, Everett S.
History of New Hampshire. 4 vols. New York: American Historical Society, 1916.
Numerous entries for slavery, African-Americans, etc., with a full chapter devoted to a discussion of the abolitionists (3: 129-143).

Stackpole, Everett S.
History of the Town of Durham, New Hampshire (Oyster River Plantation), With Genealogical Notes. [s.l.: s.n.], 1913.
The chapter on slavery lists many of the slaves held in the 18th and 19th centuries as well as those who held them. The text of a letter addressing a request for dismission of a Congregational Church member and a recommendation of that member to a Presbyterian Church in Kentucky (a slave holding state) is included.

Stacy, James.
History of the Midway Congregational Church, Liberty County, Georgia. Newman, [1903]; rpt. ed.,[s. l.: s. n.], 1951.
Reproduced in 1951 from the two original volumes, with inclusion of Addenda by Mrs. Elizabeth Walker Quarterman, and published church records. Chapter XI is titled "Religious Instruction of the Negroes."

Stanton, R. P.
Slavery Viewed in the Light of the Golden Rule: A Discourse Delivered in the Fourth Congregational Church, of Norwich, at Greeneville, Conn., December 19, 1860. Norwich: Published by Members of the Congregation, 1860.
Spirited attack on slavery as vicious, cruel, and unjust to the slave and sinful in itself. Scornful of apologists for slavery as a benevolent institution.

Stark, Charles Rathbone.
Groton, Conn., 1705. Stonington, CT: The Author, 1922.
Section entitled "Echoes of Slavery Days" includes two manumission records from the Groton Land Records (pp. 423-425).

Starr, Edwin Comfort.
A History of Cornwall, Connecticut, A Typical New England Town. New Haven, 1926; rpt. ed. Torrington, CT: Rainbow Press, 1982.
Has a short list of slaves and free African-Americans apparently taken from local records (pp. 399-400).

Steahr, Thomas E.
The Population of Connecticut: Town and County Fact Book, 1970. Storrs, CT: Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station, 1974.
Contains table (#10) on ethnic composition of Connecticut's population in 1970.

Stearns, Oliver.
The Gospel Applied to the Fugitive Slave Law: A Sermon Preached to the Third Congregational Society of Hingham, on Sunday, March 2, 1851. Boston: W. Crosby & H. P. Nichols, 1851.
Moral law overrides civil law in matter of returning escaped slaves. Opposes enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law.

Stebbins, Rufus Phineas.
An Historical Address, Delivered at the Centennial Celebration of the Incorporation of the Town of Wilbraham, June 15, 1863. Boston: George C. Rand & Avery, 1864.
Contains a brief listing of slaves in Wilbraham (pp. 267-268).

Stedman, Emilie T.
Hammet Achmet, a Servant of George Washington. Middletown: E. T. Stedman, [1900?].
Brief biography of the life of Achmet, who served Washington, fought in the Revolution, and lived, in his later years, in Middletown, CT.

Stein, Gertrude, and Virgil Thomson.
4 Saints in 3 Acts. Hartford: Case, Lockwood & Brainard, 1934.
This is the program for the world premier of this play, which had a cast composed entirely of African-Americans and was put on at Avery Memorial Hall. Stein wrote the libretto, and Thomson, the music. The play was sponsored by the Friends and Enemies of Modern Music, of which A. Everett ("Chick") Austin, Jr., was the president.

Steiner, Walter Ralph.
A Physician's Experiences in the United States Sanitary Commission During the Civil War [s. l.: s. n.], 1941.
Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Charaka Club, vol. 10 (1941). These biographical experiences, taken from the diary of a Frederick, MD, doctor, contain a description of the African-Americans with the Confederate army when it marched into Frederick in September, 1862.

Stephen Allen Benson, President of Liberia.
[s.> l.: s. n., 1854?]
"From the National Magazine." Brief sketch of the life of Benson, who was born in Maryland in 1816 of free African-Americans and sailed to Liberia with his parents in 1822.

Steward, William.
Gouldtown, a Very Remarkable Settlement of Ancient Date. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1913.
General history of Gouldtown in Cumberland County, NJ, described by the authors as "a community of mulattoes who ... have perpetuated themselves generation after generation for almost two centuries."

Stewart, Daniel Y.
Black Women in Greater New Haven: Accomplishments, Talents, Awards & Contributions. [s. l.: s. n, n. d.]
Collection of brief biographies, together with sketches of African-American women's organizations.

Stiles, Ezra.
To the Public. Newport, R.I.: [s. n.], 1776.
Signed in print: Ezra Stiles and Samuel Hopkins. Proposal to send two African- American freemen of Newport to Guinea as missionaries; quotes a letter of Phillis Wheatley on this subject.

Stiles, Henry Reed.
The History of Ancient Wethersfield. 2 vols. Somersworth: New Hampshire Publishing, 1974-75.
Includes two sections on slavery, one listing slaves in Wethersfield, and the other, slaves in Rocky Hill (1:700-703; 944-946).

Still, William.
The Underground Railroad. 1872; facs. rpt. New York: Arno Press & The New York Times, 1968.
History of the Underground Railroad by a free African-American man who, in 1851, was chairman of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society.

Stofko, Karl P.
A Brief History of East Haddam, Connecticut. East Haddam, CT: East Haddam Historic District Commission, [n. d.].
Has a paragraph on slavery, which cites the epitaph of Venture Smith (p. 5).

Stone, Melvin T.
Historical Sketch of the Town of Troy, New Hampshire, and Her Inhabitants, From the First Settlement of the Territory Now Within the Limits of the Town in 1764- 1897. Keene, NH: Sentinel, 1897.
Contains a brief discussion of slavery in the U.S., including the "Missouri Compromise" and the Dred Scot decision (pp. 203-206).

Storrs, R. S.
Our Nation's Work for the Colored People: A Discourse Delivered in the Church of the Pilgrims, Brooklyn, N.Y., in Behalf of The American Missionary Association. New York: Holt, 1890.
Encourages support of efforts to provide Christian education for African- Americans in America; notes inconsistency of attempting to Christianize blacks abroad while neglecting African-Americans at home.

Stoughton, John A.
"Windsor Farmes": A Glimpse of an Old Parish, Together with the Deciphered Inscriptions from a Few Foundation Stones of a Much Abused Theology. Hartford: Clark & Smith, 1883.
Rev. Timothy Edwards' slave, "Ansars," is mentioned in an account book entry (pp.91-92).

Stowe, Charles Edward.
Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe, Compiled from Her Letters and Journals by her Son. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1889.
This biography contains much in Mrs. Stowe's own words on slavery, the effect of the Fugitive Slave Law, the writing of Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the book's effect both here and abroad.

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher.
Caban f'Ewythr Twm; Fywyd yn mhlith Iselradd. Remsen, NY: J. E. Everett, 1854.
Welsh language translation of Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher.
Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp. 2 vols. Boston: Phillips, Sampson, 1856.
Mrs. Stowe's second antislavery novel shows the damaging effect of slavery on whites, whose destruction is predicted by Dred, a God-obsessed runaway slave. Dred is cast as the son of Denmark Vesey; and Milly, a majestic bonds-woman, is based on Sojourner Truth. The appendix includes Nat Turner's confessions, some judicial records of masters killing slaves, and the abysmal record of the church on slavery.

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher.
Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp. 2nd ed. Montreal: E. Pickup; Owler and Stevenson, 1856.
The Canadian edition of Stowe's second antislavery novel.

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher.
A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin, Preserving the Original Facts and Documents upon Which the Story Is Founded, Together With Corroborative Statements Verifying the Truth of the Work. Boston: John P. Jewett, 1853.
This book is an authentication of what had appeared in Uncle Tom's Cabin. It is important for the revelations it makes as to Mrs. Stowe's thinking about the major characters of her book. The richest vein of authentic material on slavery mined by Stowe for A Key was Theodore Weld's American Slavery As It Is.

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher.
Pictures and Stories from Uncle Tom's Cabin. Boston: John P. Jewett, 1853.
Verses, pictures, and music as well as adapted prose from the novel bring the moralistic message of Uncle Tom's Cabin to young readers to "foster in their hearts a generous sympathy for the wronged Negro race of America." Etchings by M. Jackson depict little Eva, Topsey, the tragedy of Uncle Tom, and Eliza and her family's escape to freedom.

Stowe, Harriet Elizabeth Beecher, 1811-1896.
Uncle Tom's Cabin; Or, Life Among the Lowly. Boston: John P. Jewett, 1852.
Library has several editions, including an 1853 edition and a 1901 Hartford edition that contains a brief history of the book and its reception, with reprints of laudatory letters from famous Europeans to Mrs. Stowe. Mrs. Stowe's famous antislavery novel of Eliza, Eva, Uncle Tom, and Simon Legree, is not only one of the best sellers of all time, but a social document of great force. It brought the problem of African-American slavery in the U. S. to the attention of the entire world and was effective in helping to abolish that slavery.

Strother, Horatio T.
The Underground Railroad in Connecticut. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1969.
Comprehensive, scholarly treatment of Connecticut's role in assisting escaped slaves to freedom.

Stuart, Charles.
The West India Question: Immediate Emancipation Would Be Safe for the Masters; Profitable for the Masters; Happy for the Slaves; Right in the Government; Advantageous to the Nation; Would Interfere With No feelings But Such as Are Disgraceful and Destructive; Cannot be Postponed Without Continually Increasing Danger; An Outline for Immediate Emancipation; and Remarks on Compensation. New Haven: Hezekiah Howe, 1833.
Reprinted from The Quarterly Magazine and Review, of April, 1832. Immediate emancipation is the best solution to the slavery problem, both in the West Indies and in the U.S.

Stuart, Isaac William.
Hartford in the Olden Time; Its First Thirty Years. Ed. W. M. B. Hartley. Hartford: F. A. Brown, 1853.
Contains a discussion of the African-American governors of Connecticut (#4, pp. 37-44).

Stuart, James.
Three Years in North America. Edinburgh: R. Cadell, 1833.
Vol. 2 includes extensive descriptions of slavery, condition of both free and slave African-Americans in the South; incidental references to African-American servants elsewhere in the U.S. Library also has the second volume of an 1833 American edition.

Stuart, Moses.
Conscience and the Constitution, With Remarks on the Recent Speech of the Hon. Daniel Webster in the Senate of the United States on the Subject of Slavery. Boston: Crocker & Brewster, 1850.
Although antislavery in principle, defends Webster's position on the 1850 Compromise; advocates gradual emancipation and colonization of the African- Americans "as we have the Indians," in some as yet unsettled western territory.

Stuart-Wortley, Lady Emmeline Charlotte Elizabeth (Manners).
Travels in the United States, etc., during 1849 and 1850. New York: Harper, 1851.
Travel book containing references to slaves and African-Americans and a musing on slavery as to just where the truth lay in defending or condemning it.


The Student and Schoolmate. (Boston: Joseph Allen.)
Juvenile. March, 1865, issue includes an article from the Hartford Courant entitled, "The African at Home," with comments on Sierra Leone and Liberia (p. 88). The September, 1865, issue has an article entitled "Slavery in Kentucky," by Rousseau, (pp. 87-88). The November, 1865, issue includes an article entitled "The Soldier and the Citizen," by Frederick Douglass. The March, 1867, issue includes and article by George S. Bothwell, entitled, "Influence of Slavery upon Civilization" (p. 112).

Suffield, CT. Congregational Church.
Records of the Congregational Church in Suffield, Conn. (Except Church Votes), 1710-1836. Hartford: The Connecticut Historical Society, 1941.
Has thirty-three entries concerning African-Americans.

Sumner, Charles.
The Crime Against Kansas; The Apologies for the Crime; The True Remedy: Speech of Hon. Charles Sumner, in the Senate of the United States, 19th and 20th May, 1856. Boston: John P. Jewett, 1856.
Vehement attack on the institution of slavery and its expansion into the territories.

Sumner, Charles.
Freedom National, Slavery Sectional: Speech of Hon. Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, on his Motion to Repeal the Fugitive Slave Bill, in the Senate of the United States, August 26, 1852. Washington, D.C.: Buell & Blanchard, 1852.
Impassioned attack on slavery in general and the Fugitive Slave Act in particular.

Swan, James.
A Dissuasion to Great-Britain and the Colonies From the Slave-Trade to Africa, Shewing the Injustice thereof, &c. Boston: J. Greenleaf, 1773.
"The crimes attending the slave trade are greatly aggravated by the extreme cruel usage the Negroes meet with in the plantations."

Swift, Zephaniah.
An Oration on Domestic Slavery, Delivered at the North Meeting-House in Hartford, on the 12th Day of May, A. D. 1791, at the Meeting of the Connecticut Society for the Promotion of Freedom, and the Relief of Persons Unlawfully Holden in Bondage. Hartford: Hudson & Goodwin, 1791.
Historical and philosophical discussion of evolution of the slave system in America, with a view to showing that it should be ended.

Tapley, Harriet Silvester.
Chronicles of Danvers (Old Salem Village), Massachusetts, 1632-1923. Danvers: Danvers Historical Society, 1923.
Includes a discussion of slavery in Danvers, naming several slaves and the families to which they belonged (pp. 50-54), and a discussion of the antislavery feelings of the town (pp. 147-151).

Taylor, Mildred D.
Song of the Trees. New York: Dial, 1975.
Juvenile. African-American author Mildred Taylor recounts an incident that occurred in her family in Depression-era Mississippi and Louisiana.

Taylor, Robert Joseph.
Colonial Connecticut: A History. Millwood, NY: KTO Press, 1979.
Briefly mentions slaves and African-Americans in colonial Connecticut (pp. 158- 160).

Temple, Josiah Howard.
History of Framingham, Massachusetts, Formerly Known as Danforth's Farms, 1640- 1880; With a Genealogical Register. Framingham: The Town, 1887.
Lists by name the slaves owned in Framingham from the early 18th to the early 19th century (pp. 235-237).

Thacker, George.
No Fellowship With Slavery: A Sermon Delivered June 29th, 1856, in the First Congregational Church, Meriden, Conn. Meriden: L. R. Webb, 1856.
Condemns slavery on moral, economic and political grounds. Speaking from the point of view of the African-American person: "It is enough to know that the slaves themselves regard their bondage as unprofitable for they have the best facilities for understanding its nature, as they have clearly the best right to judge of the advantages of their condition."

Thatcher, James.
In the Winter when the Snows Come Down. Hartford: Thatcher, 1915.
Sheet music, described as "The Greatest Coon Song Ever Written," in which the protagonist, an African-American who failed in the Klondike gold fields, laments the harshness of winter.

Thomas, Herman Edward.
An Analysis of the Life and Work of James W. C. Pennington, a Black Churchman and Abolitionist. Hartford Seminary Foundation Ph.D., 1978.
A critical study of the life and work of religious leader and abolitionist Pennington, including two appendices (award of honorary Doctor of Divinity degree to Pennington by University of Heidelberg and Pennington's activities in the temperance movement) and a bibliography.

Thome, James A., and J. Horace Kimball.
"Emancipation in the West Indies: A Six Months' Tour in Antigua, Barbadoes, and Jamaica, in the Year 1837." The Anti-slavery Examiner, No. 7 (1838).
Exposition on effects of emancipation in British West Indies, circulated as an antislavery document in the U.S.

Thomen, Ada Phelps.
The First Church, Torrington, 1741-1841. Part I. Torrington Historical Society Bulletin #4. Torrington, CT: Torrington Historical Society, 1951.
Has a short biography of Lemuel Haynes (pp. 113-120).

Thompson, Charles O. F.
Sketches of Old Bristol. Providence: Roger Williams, 1942.
Mentions James D'Wolf and the slave trade in 1807, referring to one specific transaction netting D'Wolf $27,635.50 (pp. 115-116). Also contains a listing of the African-Americans of Old Bristol (pp. 156-159).

Thompson, George.
Prison Life and Reflections: Or, A Narrative of the Arrest, Trial, Conviction, Imprisonment, Treatment, Observations, Reflections, and Deliverance of Work, Burr and Thompson, Who Suffered an Unjust and Cruel Imprisonment in Missouri Penitentiary, for Attempting to Aid Some Slaves to Liberty. Oberlin: James M. Fitch, 1847.
While chiefly a narrative of author's prison experiences, this work includes numerous incidents involving slaves and reflections on slavery and condition of African-Americans in Missouri. Library also has three Hartford editions published by A. Work (1850, 1853, 1857).

Thwing, Walter Eliot.
History of the First Church in Roxbury, Mass., 1630-1904. Boston: Butterfield, 1908.
Index has references to church record entries for fourteen African-Americans.

Tisler, C. C.
"Prudence Crandall, Aboltionist" Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 33, no. 2 (June 1940): 203-206.
A short, rather moralistic account of Prudence Crandall and her problems in Canterbury, CT, because of her school for African-American girls.


To the Clergy of New England. Boston: Committee of Clergymen of Boston, 1854.
Appeal by a committee of Boston clergymen to protest to Congress against the passage of the Nebraska Bill and against the extension of slavery into the territories.


To the People of Connecticut: "The Extension of Slavery" ;The Official Acts of Both Parties in Relation to this Question. [s. l.: s. n., 1856?]
Pro-Democrat campaign document in the 1856 Presidential canvass.

Tocqueville, Alexis de.
Democracy in America 2 vols. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985.
Includes section on the "Situation of the Black Population in the United States"(1: 356-381); incidental references to African-Americans, slavery and servitude throughout.

Torrey, Jesse.
A Portraiture of Domestic Slavery in the United States; Proposing National Measures for the Education and Gradual Emancipation of the Slaves, without Impairing the Legal Privileges of the Possessor; and a Project of a Colonial Asylum for Free People of Color; Including Memoirs of Facts on the Interior Traffic in Slaves, and on Kidnapping. 2nd ed. Ballston Spa: The Author, 1818.
Advocates gradual emancipation, with owners compensated; affirms that African- Americans can and should be educated; discusses colonization, but does not feel that it would solve the problem of relations between white and African-American.

Toucey, Isaac.
Speech of Mr. Toucey, of Connecticut, Defending Himself Against the Nebraska Resolutions of the Legislature of Connecticut. Washington, DC: Sentinel, 1854.
Opposed to antislavery agitation in the North, Toucey had voted for the Kansas- Nebraska Bill, thus incurring censure by the Connecticut legislature. In this defense, he also criticises the state legislature for its attempts to thwart enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.

Toucey, Isaac.
Speech of Mr. Toucey, of Connecticut, on the Bill to Organize the Territories of Nebraska and Kansas; Delivered in the Senate of the United States, March 3, 1854. Washington: G. S. Gideon, 1854.
States that the real issue regarding the Kansas-Nebraska Bill is not whether slavery is good or bad in itself, but whether Congress has the power to exclude it from any portion of the Louisiana Purchase. Believes Missouri Compromise line is unconstitutional.

Tracy, Joseph.
Natural Equality: A Sermon Before the Vermont Colonization Society, at Montpelier, October 17, 1833. Windsor: Chronicle Press, 1833.
States that all men, women and children have the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and that slavery deprives African-Americans of these rights, and of the right to property. Feels colonization is best calculated to serve the interests of free African-Americans. Praises Liberia as evidence that African-Americans are fully able to govern themselves.

Trecker, Janice Law.
Preachers, Rebels, and Traders: Connecticut, 1818 to 1865. Series in Connecticut History # 3. Chester, CT: Pequot Press, 1975.
Includes a chapter on African-Americans, abolition, and slavery, mentioning, among others, Prudence Crandall, the Amistad captives and Rev. James Pennington.

Trumbull, Henry Clay.
War Memories of an Army Chaplain. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1898.
Includes chapter on slavery and the effects of emancipation (pp. 367-412).

Trumbull, James Russell.
History of Northampton, Massachusetts From Its Settlement in 1654. 2 vols. Northampton: [s. n.], 1898.
Volume 1 includes the story of the burning of Lt. William Clarke's house by a disgruntled slave named Jack, who was eventually caught and sentenced to death (pp. 376-377).

Tryon, Thomas.
Lady. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1975.
The nostalgic background of a fictionalized Wethersfield, CT, in the 1930's and 40's is the setting for this novel of a white woman of wealth and charm and her long, illicit love affair with her African-American chauffeur.

Tucker, William Howard.
History of Hartford, Vermont, July 4, 1761-April 4, 1889. Burlington, VT.: Free Press, 1889.
Includes a discussion of the town's poor and their support, which contains figures for the cost of keeping several African-American people. Among them was Lurana (or Rena) Duncan, the daughter of a well-to-do African-American man, who, because of her mental incompetence, was made a town charge (pp. 306-307).

Twining, Alexander C.
The Nebraska Bill and its Results. [s. l.: s. n., n. d.]
A civil engineer's condemnation of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, and of slavery. From the New Englander (May 1854).

Twitchell, Willis I., ed.
Hartford in History; A Series of Papers by Resident Authors. Hartford: Plimpton, 1899.
Comments on an African-American governor associated with Major Skene, a Loyalist, and fellow prisoner of Major Christopher French (pp. 209-210).


Two Centuries of New Milford, Connecticut: An Account of the Bi-centennial Celebration of the Founding of the Town Held June 15, 16, 17, and 18, 1907, with a Number of Historical Articles and Reminiscences. New York: Grafton, 1907.
Mentions stations on the Underground Railroad in the New Milford area (p. 20).

Tyler, Edward Royal.
Slaveholding a Malum In Se, or Invariably Sinful. Hartford: S. S. Cowles, 1839.
Historical, philosophical, and theological argument that slavery is, in all instances, sinful.

Tyng, Dudley A.
Our Country's Troubles: A Sermon Preached in the Church of the Epiphany, Philadelphia, June 29, 1856 . Boston: John P. Jewett, 1856.
Opposes extension of slavery in relation to settlement of Kansas; states that slave labor demeans free labor, but does not reflect on its effect on the slave.


The Underground Railroad in New England. [s. l.]: American Revolution Bicentennial Administration, Region 1, 1976.
Brief descriptions, with illustrations, of selected Underground Railroad sites in New England.

Union Settlement of Hartford.
Serving for 75 Years: The Union Settlement of Hartford, 1872-1947. Hartford: Union Settlement of Hartford, 1947.
Settlement work in a racially mixed neighborhood.

United States. Census Office. 6th Census, 1840.
Compendium of the Enumeration of the Inhabitants and Statistics of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Thomas Allen, 1841.
Includes numbers of free and enslaved African-Americans, male and female, by state and county.

United States. Circuit Court for the District of Connecticut, at Hartford.
The African Captives: Trial of the Prisoners of the Amistad on the Writ of Habeas Corpus, Before the Circuit Court of the United States, for the District of Connecticut, at Hartford; Judges Thompson and Judson. September Term, 1839. New York: [s.n.], 1839.
Detailed summary of trial proceedings, together with historical introduction.

United States. Department of State.
Africans Taken in the Amistad: Message from the President of the United States Transmitting the Information Required by the Resolution of the House of Representatives of the 23rd ultimo, in Relation to the Africas Taken in the Vessel Called the Amistad, &c. April 15, 1840. Washington, D.C.: Blair & Rives, [1840].
Doc. No. 185. Documents relating to the Mendi Africans, supporting the claims of Ruiz and Montes to legal ownership of them.

United States. Department of State.
Statistical View of the Population of the United States from 1790 to 1830, Inclusive. Washington, D.C.: Duff Green, 1835.
Includes statistics on free African-American and slave populations, by state, decade, and sex.

United States. Laws. 1798.
An Act to Provide for the Valuation of Lands and Dwelling-houses, and the Enumeration of Slaves within the United States. [s.l.: s.n., 1798].
Includes "An Act to Lay and Collect a Direct Tax within the United States." Another copy (different ed., also without imprint), entitled: Extracts from an Act of Congress, Entitled to Provide ... , and including full text of An Act to Lay and Collect a Direct Tax.

United States. National Archives and Records Service.
Guide to Genealogical Research in the National Archives Washington, D.C.: NARS, 1982.
Lists records housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C., that relate specifically to African-Americans (pp. 173-185).

United States. President (1841-1845: Tyler).
Schooner Amistad: Message from the President of the United States, Transmitting Sundry Letters between the Department of State and the Chevalier d'Argaz, on the Subject of the Schooner "Amistad," February 28, 1842. Washinton, D.C.: [s. n.], 1842.
Doc. No. 191. Concerns continued negotiations with the Spanish government, subsequent to the U. S. Supreme Court's decision in the Amistad case.

United States. Works Progress Administration. Federal Writers' Project. Connecticut.
Connecticut; A Guide to Its Roads, Lore, and People. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1938.
Has several references to African and African-American "governors," African- Americans and African-American education.

Updike, Wilkins.
History of the Episcopal Church in Narragansett, Rhode Island; Including a History of Other Episcopal Churches in the State; With an Appendix, ... Entitled, "American Dissected," by the Rev. J. Macsparren, ... With Notes Containing Genealogical and Biographical Accounts of Distinguished Men, Families, etc. New York: Henry M. Onderdonk, 1847.
Contains a history of slavery in Rhode Island with statistics furnished by E. R. Potter (pp. 168-188) and a brief account of Thomas Hazard and his antislavery activities.

Valentine, Edward Pleasants.
The ... Papers: Abstracts of Records in the Local and General Archives of Virginia. 4 vols. Richmond: [s. n., n. d.].
Includes many listings, principally by name, of "negroes" and "slaves" in the abstracted documents.

Van Deventer, David E.
The Emergence of Provincial New Hampshire, 1623-1741. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1976.
Includes discussion of African-Americans as a source of labor in colonial New Hampshire (pp. 113-114). Notes to this discussion include valuable references to specific slaves, population statistics, probate actions, etc. (pp. 256-257).

Van Dusen, Albert Edward.
Connecticut. New York: Random House, 1961.
Contains information on Prudence Crandall, the Amistad affair, and Connecticut's antislavery involvement (pp. 210-213, 219-224).

Van Dusen, Albert Edward.
Puritans Against the Wilderness; Connecticut History to 1763. Series in Connecticut History, # 1. Chester, CT: Pequot Press, 1975.
"Blacks in Connecticut" is a very brief history of slavery in colonial Connecticut (pp. 97-101).

Van Rensselaer, Mrs. John King.
The Goede Vrouw of Mana-ha-ta at Home and in Society, 1609-1760. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1898.
Contains a lengthy discussion of the circumstances surrounding the "Negro Plot" of 1741 (Chapter XX).

Van Rensselaer, Mrs. Schuyler.
History of the City of New York in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1909.
Has scattered references to African-Americans and slavery, with a brief discussion of the establishment of slavery by the English in the 17th century, and its subsequent use by the Dutch West Indies Company (1:191-194)..

Vermont.
Records. Ed. E. P. Walton. 8 vols. Montpelier: Poland, 1873-1880.
Contains many references to Vermont and the slavery issue, including the legislation which established Vermont as a slave-free state.


The Vermont Historical Gazetteer: A Magazine, Embracing a History of Each Town, Civil, Ecclesiastical, Biographical and Military. 5 vols. Ed. A. E. Hemenway. Burlington, VT.: A. M. Hemenway, 1868-1891.
Vols. 1-3 first issued in quarterly numbers; vol. 5 pub. by Carrie E. H. Page. Topics include abolitionists in Montpelier; antislavery sentiments; African- American slaves; slavery; and slaves in Vermont in 1791.


Vermont Quarterly: A Magazine of History. (Montpelier, VT: Vermont Historical Society, 1950-date.)
Contains a sketch of Jack York, a runaway slave who settled in Pittsfield, VT (21:141-142) and abstracts of the controversy involving Dinah Mason, former slave of Judge Stephen Jacob (21:289-291); a short discussion of the Underground Railroad in Vermont (22:180-189); an article entitled "Slavery and the Vermont Clergy" which discusses many Vermont clergy and their antislavery activities (27: 305-312). Of particular interest are the stories of Lemuel Haynes and Sister St. Mary Magdalen.

Verrill, Addison Emery.
The Bermuda Islands: An Account of their Scenery, Climate, Productions, Physiography, Natural History and Geology, with Sketches of their Discovery and Early History, and the Changes in Their Flora and Fauna Due to Man. New Haven: A. E. Verrill, 1902.
This book of geography, geology, etc. on the Burmuda islands includes an account of the history of slavery and laws passed concerning African- Americans."Reprinted from the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Science, volume XI, with some changes."


Views of Slavery and Emancipation. [s. l.: s. n., n. d.]
In this pamphlet, the author asserts that African-Americans are citizens and in no way inferior as a class to whites. Scorns colonization as a half-way, ultimately ineffectual measure and advocates immediate abolition of slavery and acceptance of African-Americans into the general society. Probably published in the late 1830's or early 1840's.

Wainwright, J. M.
A Discourse on the Occasion of Forming the African Mission School Society, Delivered in Christ Church, in Hartford, Connecticut, on Sunday Evening, Aug. 10, 1828. Hartford: H. & F. J. Huntington, 1828.
"Its hope is, in the present year, to obtain a few pious and intelligent young men of colour, and to educate them with reference to the propagation of the gospel in Africa." Fears that immediate emancipation would result in the massacre of the white population.

Waldo, George Curtis, ed.
History of Bridgeport and Vicinity. 2 vols. New York: S. J. Clarke, 1917.
Volume I, Chapter 21, briefly discusses the history of slavery in the U.S. (pp. 379-380).

Walker, Alice Morehouse.
Historic Hadley: A Story of the Making of a Famous Massachusetts Town. New York: Grafton, 1906.
Includes a discussion of slavery in Hadley, specifically mentioning Joshua Boston and Arthur and Joan Prutt and their seven children.

Walker, George Leon.
History of the First Church in Hartford, 1633-1883. Hartford: Brown & Gross, 1884.
References to African-Americans held in ministers' families are found in footnotes (pp. 219, 220, 255, 332).

Wallace, William Allen.
The History of Canaan, New Hampshire. Concord, NH: Rumford, 1910.
Town history containing a chapter on the Noyes Academy, founded in 1834. The purpose of the academy was to provide education without regard to race. The academy was destroyed in August 1835 when a mob carried away the building and the teacher and African-American pupils were given one month to leave the town (pp. 255-296).

Wallingford Bicentennial Commission.
From These Roots: A Bicentennial History of a New England Town. Wallingford, CT: The Commission, 1976.
Has a discussion of the abolition movement and the "Meriden Riot" (pp. 17-19).

Wansey, Henry.
An Excursion to the United States of North America, in the Summer of 1794. Salisbury: J. Easton, 1798.
A travel book written by an Englishman, containing various references to slavery and free African-Americans.

Warner, Charles Dudley.
Mummies and Moslems. Hartford: American Publishing, 1876.
This travel book by the famous Hartford journalist deals with Egypt and the Sudan in a trip down the Nile. Among Warner's many observations are those on the persistence of the enslavement of Africans.

Warner, Robert A.
Amos Gerry Beman, 1812-1874, A Memoir of a Forgotten Leader. Offprint from The Journal of Negro History, 22, No. 2 (April 1937): 200-221.
Brief biography of the life of Beman, born in Colchester, CT, pastor of the Temple Street African Church in New Haven in 1841, active in the temperance movement and antislavery organizations in Connecticut and nationally.

Warner, Robert Austin.
New Haven Negroes, a Social History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1940.
Detailed study of the African-American community in New Haven from the Revolutionary War period to 1940.

Warren, Robert Penn.
John Brown, The Making of a Martyr. New York: Payson & Clarke, 1929.
A readable, almost novelistic treatment of John Brown's life and antislavery activities presented in terms of Brown's "enormous egotism" expressing itself "in one set of terms after another." Particular attention is given to activities in Kansas.

Washburn, Emory.
Historical Sketches of the Town of Leicester, Massachusetts, during the First Century From Its Settlement. Boston: J. Wilson, 1860.
Brief history of the African-American population of Leicester from the early 19th century. Names of local African-Americans include Cain Bowman, Peter Salem, Black Tom, and Caesar Augustus Finnemore.

Washington & Co. (Hartford, CT.)
The Washington Daguerrean Gallery. Hartford: Washington, 1851.
Broadside. Advertises the photographic business of African-American photographer Augustus Washington.

Waters, Thomas Franklin.
Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Ipswich: Ipswich Historical Society, 1905-1917.
Chapter 9, "Slaves, Servants and Apprentices," is a short discussion of the various degrees of servitude and includes the names of African-American, Indian and white servants and their masters (pp. 210-227).

Waters, Wilson.
History of Chelmsford, Massachusetts. Lowell: The Town, 1917.
Town history with scattered references to African-Americans and slaves, including journal entry of Rev. Ebenezer Bridges, noting his reaction to the death of his African-American servant, Venus.

Watson, Ebenezer.
A Discourse upon Extortion ... by Isaac Foster .... Hartford: Watson, 1777.
Handbill advertising a book on the evils of slavery.

Watson, Franklin J.
A Comparison of Negro and White Populations: Connecticut, 1940-1960. Atlanta, GA: Atlanta University, 1968.
Photocopy of article from Phylon, the Atlanta University Review of Race and Culture, 29, no. 2 (1968): 142-155. Socio-economic and demographic study of African-American and white population.

Weaver, Glenn.
Hartford: An Illustrated History of Connecticut's Capital. Woodland Hills, CA: Windsor Publications, 1982.
Contains many references to African-Americans, slavery, abolitionism, and modern African-American organizations.

Webster, Daniel.
Speech of Hon. Daniel Webster, on Mr. Clay's Resolutions, in the Senate of the United States, March 7, 1850. Washington: Gideon, 1850.
The famous 7th of March speech that endorsed Clay's compromise measures, including a strong fugitive slave law; believed by many abolitionists to be Webster's price for Southern support of his presidential aspirations for 1852.

Webster, Noah.
Effects of Slavery on Morals and Industry. Hartford: Hudson & Goodwin, 1793.
Economic and philosophical discussion of the evil effects of slavery upon the commonwealth.

Weise, A. J.
History of the City of Troy, from the Expulsion of the Mohegan Indians to the Present Centennial Year of the Independence of the United States of America, 1876. Troy: William H. Young, 1876.
Includes the story of Charles Nalle, a runaway slave, whose apprehension and attempted extradition sparked a riot, allowing Nalle to escape from the authorities (pp. 224-227).

Welby-Gregory, Hon., Victoria Alexandrina Maria Louisa (Stuart-Wortley), Lady.
Young Traveller's Journal of a Tour in North and South America During the Year 1850. London: T. Bosworth, 1852.
Written by a twelve-year-old, this travel book about the U.S. contains various stories about African-Americans and slaves, including a reported antipathy between African-Americans and Indians.

Welch, Marvis Olive.
Prudence Crandall, a Biography. Manchester: Jason, 1983.
A somewhat novelistic but complete biography of the Quaker teacher who ran afoul of Canterbury and the state of Connecticut with her school for African-American girls. There is extensive use of letters, contemporary newspaper accounts, and court records in telling the story.

Weld, Angelina Emily Grimk.
Letters to Catherine E. Beecher, in Reply to An Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism, Addressed to A. E. Grimk?. Boston: Isaac Knapp, 1838.
Southern born woman's defense of abolitionism, in response to Beecher's moderate antislavery position and her assertion that it was inexpedient for northern women to join abolition societies.

Weld, Ralph Foster.
Slavery in Connecticut. New Haven: Tercentenary Commission, 1935.
Pamphlet on the history of slavery in Conecticut, covering the 1640's to the 1850's.


The Well Spent Sou; Or, Bibles for the Poor Negroes. New-Haven: Baldwin & Treadway, 1830.
Jacob Porter, trans. Originally intended to solicit contributions to the Bible and Tract Societies for mission work among Africans, probably also used in this country to elicit a sympathetic concern for southern African-Americans, as well.

Welles, Gideon
Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson. 3 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1911.
The diary of Lincoln and Johnson's Secretary of the Navy has numerous references to African-Americans, slavery, use of African-American troops, and African- American suffrage.

Westerly, RI.
The First Hundred Years: Pawcatuck Seventh Day Baptist Church, 1840-1940. Westerly: Utter, 1940.
Includes "Slavery and the Church," a general discussion of slavery in Rhode Island and the abolitionist attitudes of the Seventh Day Baptist Church (190- 199).

Westin, Jean Eddy.
Finding Your Roots: How Every American Can Trace His Ancestors, at Home and Abroad. Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1977.
Provides brief references to African immigrants and records pertinent to researching their ancestry. Includes addresses in Washington, D.C., for eight West African embassies.

Weston, Thomas.
History of the Town of Middleboro, Massachusetts. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1906.
Chapter 7, "Slaves in Middleboro," contains several ancedotes involving slaves in Middleboro, including stories about Sambo, a slave owned by Rev. Peter Thatcher, and Deacon Abiel Wood's Elsie.

Wheatley, Phillis.
An Elegiac Poem, on the Death of that Celebrated Divine ... George Whitefield. [Boston?: s.n.], 1770.
Broadside. "She has been but 9 years in this country from Africa."

Wheatley, Phillis.
Memoir and Poems of Phillis Wheatley, a Native African and a Slave; Also, Poems by a Slave. 3rd ed. Boston: Isaac Knapp, 1838.
The Memoir concludes with a plea for emancipation of African-American slaves, and cites Wheatley as an example of ability and genius among African-Americans.

Wheatley, Phillis.
Poems. Rev. ed. Ed. Julian D. Mason, Jr. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
First published in 1966, this is the standard scholarly edition of all of Wheatley's poems and letters.

Wheatley, Phillis.
Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. London: A. Bell, 1773.
Taken to England with her master, John Wheatley of Boston, this African-American slave attracted the attention of the Countess of Huntingdon and other English evangelicals, who assisted her in the publication of a volume of her poems. The frontispiece is a portrait of Wheatley. Two copies. Library also has 1802 Walpole, NH, edition.

Wheatley, Phillis.
To the Hon'ble Thomas Hubbard, Esq.; on the Death of Mrs. Thankfull Leonard. Boston: P. Wheatley, 1773.
Broadside. Funeral poem on the death of a daughter.

Wheaton, N. S.
A Discourse on St. Paul's Epistle to Philemon, Exhibiting the Duty of Citizens of the Northern States in Regard to the Institution of Slavery; Delivered in Christ Church, Hartford, Dec. 22, 1850. Hartford: Case, Tiffany, 1851.
States that slavery is inevitable, or that colonization must accompany emancipation, on the ground that "wherever the two races subsist together in the same community, in anything like equal numbers, experience has shown it is best that the relation of master and bondsman should prevail." Cites Biblical book of Philimon to justify the return of escaped slaves to their masters. Library also has an undated edition published by Gideon & Co.

Wheeler, Edmund.
The History of Newport, New Hampshire, from 1766 to 1878, With a Genealogical Register. Concord, NH: Republican, 1879.
Newport appears to have had a sizable African-American colony located on or near Coits Mountain. There is mention of a mixed marriage as well as a description of an African-American wedding.

White, Alain Campbell, comp.
The History of the Town of Litchfield, Connecticut, 1720-1920. Litchfield: Enquirer Print, 1920.
Has a short discussion of slavery in Litchfield, mentioning many slaves by name (pp. 151-155). "The Impressions and Post Impressions" of Dr. Arthur E. Bostwick include his recollections of African-American families in Litchfield (pp. 233-234).

White, David Oliver.
Connecticut's Black Soldiers, 1775-1783. Chester, CT: Pequot Press, 1973.
Overview of Connecticut African-Americans' participation in the Revolutionary War.

Whitehead, William Adee.
Contributions to the Early History of Perth Amboy and Adjoining Country, with Sketches of Men and Events in New Jersey During the Provincial Era. New York: D. Appleton, 1856.
Includes a general discussion of slavery, slave "risings," and tariffs on slaves, with particular attention to the murder of Mrs. Ayers and the subsequent punishment of the murderer (pp. 316-320).

Williams, C. S.
Map of the United States, Constructed from the Latest Authorities. New Haven: C. S. Williams, 1833.
Map and "Statistical View of the United States." Table titled "Different Classes of Inhabitants—1830" lists population figures for "Whites," "Free Blacks," and "Slaves."

Williams, Franklin B.
Middletown, a Biography. Middletown, NY: Lawrence A. Toepp, 1928.
"Wallkill Slaves" includes manumission records of Abel Darby and lists of slave owners.

Williams, James.
Narrative of James Williams, An American Slave, Who Was for Several Years a Driver on a Cotton Plantation in Alabama. New York: American Anti-slavery Society, 1838.
Slave narrative. Includes preface and note by the editor and appendix. Preface and appendix contain testimony of slaveholders and others regarding conditions of slavery.

Williams, James.
"Narrative of James Williams, An American Slave." Anti-slavery Examiner, 6 (1838): 2-8.
Williams slave narrative in serials format. Same text and preface as in 1838 monograph, but lacks note by the editor and appendix.

Williams, Samuel.
The Natural and Civil History of Vermont. 2nd ed. Burlington: Samuel Mills, 1809.
Contains "A Dissertation on the Colors of Men, Particularly that of the Indians of America," a discussion that includes variety and change of color, color connected with climate, and color and climate of the Indians of America (pp. 493-503).

Wilson, Joseph Thomas.
The Black Phalanx: A History of the Negro Soldiers of the United States in the Wars of 1775-1812, 1861-'65. Hartford: American Publishing Company, 1888.
Written by an African-American veteran of the Civil War; major portion of book deals with that war, and includes a chapter on African-Americans in the Confederate army.

Windham, CT. Congregational Church.
Records of the Congregational Church in Windham, Conn. (Except Church Votes) 1700-1851. Hartford: The Connecticut Historical Society and the Society of Mayflower Descendants in the State of Connecticut, 1943.
Has 76 entries for "negroes."

Wintonbury Historical Society.
From Wintonbury to Bloomfield, Bloomfield Sketches: A Collection of Papers on the History of the Town of Bloomfield, Connecticut, Formerly Known as Wintonbury. Bloomfield: Wintonbury Historical Society, 1983.
Contains many references to the African-American community in Bloomfield from the 18th through the 20th centuries.

Woolsey, C. M.
History of the Town of Marlborough, Ulster County, New York, from Its Earliest Discovery. Albany: J. B. Lyon, 1908.
Has a chapter on slavery (pp. 224-235).


Women's Diaries of the Westward Journey. New York: Schocken Books, 1982.
Presents several vignettes of African-American women, many born as slaves, who moved west, acquired their freedom and became prosperous (pp. 135-138). Includes several photographs of the subjects.

Woodbridge, William Channing.
Atlas, Exhibiting the Prevailing Religions, Forms of Government, Degrees of Civilization, and the Comparative Size of Towns, Rivers, and Mountains, in the Known World, to Accompany The Rudiments of Geography on a New Plan. Hartford: Samuel G. Goodrich, 1821.
This atlas rates the degrees of civilization and religion in various parts of the world. Africa is rated as mostly barbarous and pagan, with only the Cape Colony being civilized.

Woodward, Carl R.
Plantation in Yankeeland: The Story of Cocumscussoc, Mirror of Colonial Rhode Island. Chester, CT: Pequot Press, 1971.
Study of early Rhode Island history. Includes miscellaneous references to slaves and slave holders, with specific discussions of slaves on the Narragansett plantations, Dr. MacSparran's slaves, Parson Fayerweather's slaves, and slaves recruited to serve in the Revolutionary War.

Woodward, Carl R.
A Profile in Dedication: Sarah Harris and the Fayerwether Family. Sturbridge: Old Sturbridge, 1973.
A short biography of the African-American girl whose entrance into Prudence Crandall's school in Canterbury led to violence and the closing of the school. Reprint from the New England Galaxy, 15, no. 1 (Summer 1973).

Woodward, Ruth Ludlam.
To Faraway Places. Old Greenwich, CT: R. L. Woodward, 1958.
Several tours in Africa, one in South Africa, and a second a safari of east Africa and the Congo, are included in this travel book.

Work, Monroe N., comp.
A Bibliography of the Negro in Africa and America. New York, 1928; rpt. ed. New York: Octagon, 1965.
Arranged topically.

World Conference on Records, Salt Lake City, 1980.
Proceedings.
Library has only four volumes of thirteen: vol. 2, Personal, family, and local history; vols. 3 & 4, North American family and local history; and vol. 13, Index to Proceedings. Vol. 3 #304 "U. S. Black Family History Resources: An Overview" by James D. Walker contains on overview of bibliographies and major collections of African-American history materials. Vol. 4 #339 "Black Family History Resources in U. S. Military Records" by James D. Walker, includes a detailed listing of military records housed in the National Archives that provide information on African-Americans in the U. S. military and a discussion of the Freedmen's Bureau records.

Worrall, Arthur J.
Quakers in the Colonial Northeast. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1980.
Includes section on antislavery activity in New England and New York (pp. 152- 165).

Worthen, Augusta Harvey.
The History of Sutton, New Hampshire: Consisting of the Historical Collections of Erastus Wadleigh, Esq., and A. H. Worthen. Concord: Republican, 1890.
Includes the 1850 protest by the Weare Conference against the Fugitive Slave law. The protest instructs members to "disregard it as dead and infamous letter on our Statute book" (p. 404).

Wraxall, Frederic Charles Lascelles.
"Saved by a Fiddle." Merry's Museum (October 1872.)
Juvenile. A story of how an African-American fiddler saves himself from a pack of coyotes.